1860 - 8th Population Census of the United States

Individual Census Records from 1790 to 1950 are maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration, not the U.S. Census Bureau.

June 1, 1860, the official start date, the census enumerator G. W. Brackenridge (sp?) started recording the 8th U.S. Federal Census in Washington Township. See What day was the census taken each decade? at the United States Census Bureau.

Look at the Fort Wayne City and Allen County Directories issued yearly since 1858.

See the 1860 Overview at United States Census Bureau.

Census Instructions

The decennial census has always required a large workforce to visit and collect data from households. Between 1790 to 1870, the duty of collecting census data fell upon the U.S. Marshals. A March 3, 1879 act replaced the U.S. Marshals with specially hired and trained census-takers to conduct the 1880 and subsequent censuses.

During the early censuses, U.S. Marshalls received little training or instruction on how to collect census data. In fact, it was not until 1830 that marshals even received printed shedules on which to record households' responses. The marshals often received limited instruction from the census acts passed prior to each census. 

Beginning with the 1880 census, specially hired and trained census-takers replaced the U.S. marshals. Door-to-door census by temporary census-takers was the primary method of conducting the census until the U.S. Census Bureau began mailing questionnaires to households in 1960.

As more and more households received and returned their questionnaires by mail, the role of census-taker changed. Today, the majority of households are counted by mailed questionnaires. Census-takers visit places frequented by transient households (shelters and soup kitchens, campsites, etc.) and households that do not return their mailed questionnaires (during the "Nonresponse Follow-Up" phase of the census). As a result, the "Instructions to Enumerators" provided here include the congressional acts U.S. marshalls reviewed during the early census, specially-published instructions for door-to-door census, and lastly, guides used for the limited number of personal interviews conducted during nonresponse follow-up operations.

Copied from the Census Intructions at the United States Census Bureau that has the 1860 Instructions.


Population schedules of the eighth census of the United States, 1860, Indiana [microform](1965) at Internet Archive.

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Links to Online Census Records

  1. ACGSI.org Agricultural Schedule
  2. ACGSI.org Manufacturing Schedule
  3. ACGSI.org Mortality Schedule
  4. ACGSI.org Population Schedule, African American
  5. ACGSI.org 1864 Monroeville Local Census
  6. ACGSI.org 1866 New Haven Local Census
  7. Ancestry.com blank 1860 census form
  8. FamilySearch.org Wiki 1860 Census Information
  9. FamilySearch.org Browse 1860 Census by Township
  10. FamilySearch.org Search 1860 U. S. Census Index
  11. FamilySearch.org Wiki for Indiana Census 1807 - 1940 links organized by year to various online census records.
  12. FindMyPast.com Free US Census 1860
  13. Use Steve Morse Census Search Tool for any census
  14. Internet Archive - Population schedules of the eighth census of the United States, 1860, Indiana [microform] (Volume Reel 0243 - 1860 Indiana Federal Population Census Schedules - Allen County) - United States. Bureau of the Census -- reel 243. Allen County
  15. No USGenWeb 1860 Census transcription or indexing
  16. United States -- Census, 8th, 1860 ebooks on Archive.org

Agriculture of the United States in 1860; compiled from the original returns of the eighth census, under the direction of the Secretary of Interior, by Joseph C. G. Kennedy, superintendent of census by United States. Census OfficeMaking of America ProjectKennedy, J. C. G. (Joseph Camp Griffith), 1813-1887Publication date 1864 on Archive.org.

Census Reports - United States. Census Office. 8th census, 1860Kennedy, J. C. G. (Joseph Camp Griffith), 1813-1887, 1813-1887 Publication date 1864 on Archive.org

Page updated: August 30, 2022