1870 - 9th Population Census of the United States

The 1870 census started June 1, 1870 from What day was the census taken each decade? at the United States Census Bureau. On June 25, 1870 the census enumerators Calvin Thomas in Aboite Township, found on Roll 0297, and July 20, 1870 John Neil in Jackson Townhip, found on Roll 0298, started recording the 9th U.S. Federal Census.

Look at the Fort Wayne City and Allen County Directories issued yearly since 1858.

See the 1870 Overview at United States Census Bureau.

Census Instructions

The decennial census has always required a large workforce to visit and collect data from households. Between 1790 to 1870, the duty of collecting census data fell upon the U.S. Marshals. A March 3, 1879 act replaced the U.S. Marshals with specially hired and trained census-takers to conduct the 1880 and subsequent censuses.

During the early censuses, U.S. Marshalls received little training or instruction on how to collect census data. In fact, it was not until 1830 that marshals even received printed shedules on which to record households' responses. The marshals often received limited instruction from the census acts passed prior to each census. 

Beginning with the 1880 census, specially hired and trained census-takers replaced the U.S. marshals. Door-to-door census by temporary census-takers was the primary method of conducting the census until the U.S. Census Bureau began mailing questionnaires to households in 1960.

As more and more households received and returned their questionnaires by mail, the role of census-taker changed. Today, the majority of households are counted by mailed questionnaires. Census-takers visit places frequented by transient households (shelters and soup kitchens, campsites, etc.) and households that do not return their mailed questionnaires (during the "Nonresponse Follow-Up" phase of the census). As a result, the "Instructions to Enumerators" provided here include the congressional acts U.S. marshalls reviewed during the early census, specially-published instructions for door-to-door census, and lastly, guides used for the limited number of personal interviews conducted during nonresponse follow-up operations.

Copied from the Census Intructions at the United States Census Bureau that has the 1870 Instructions.

Roll 0297 - Population schedules of the ninth census of the United States, 1870, Indiana [microform] (1965) on Internet Archive.

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Roll 0298 - Population schedules of the ninth census of the United States, 1870, Indiana [microform] (1965) on Internet Archive.

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Links to Online Census Records

  1. ACGSI.org Agricultural Schedule
  2. ACGSI.org Manufacturing Schedule
  3. ACGSI.org Mortality Schedule
  4. ACGSI.org Population Schedule, African American
  5. ACGSI.org 1871 Enumeration of White Males over 21 (statistics only)
  6. Ancestry.com blank 1870 census form
  7. FamilySearch Wiki 1870 Census Information
  8. FamilySearch - Browse 1870 Census by Township
  9. FamilySearch Search U.S. Census Index
  10. FamilySearch Wiki for Indiana Census 1807 - 1940 links organized by year to various online census records.
  11. FindMyPast.com Free US Census 1870
  12. Use Steve Morse Census Search Tool for any census
  13. Internet Archive - Population schedules of the ninth census of the United States, 1870, Indiana [microform] (Volume Reel 0297 - 1870 Indiana Federal Population Census Schedules - Allen County (part)) - United States. Bureau of the Census 296. -- reel 297. Allen County (part)
  14. Internet Archive - Population schedules of the ninth census of the United States, 1870, Indiana [microform] (Volume Reel 0298 - 1870 Indiana Federal Population Census Schedules - Allen County (part)) - United States. Bureau of the Census 296. -- reel 298. Allen County (part)
  15. No USGenWeb 1870 Census transcription or indexing
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Page updated: October 12, 2018