Wildlife of Allen County, Indiana

Native Plants

Native plants were already growing here when Europeans arrived and started recording the wildlife as they settled across the country.

Jump to sections and separate pages: Charlie Deam, LC Nature Park, Native Plants, News, Outhouse Flowers.

The Indiana Native Plant Society was established in 1993.

Cover photo for the Indiana Native Plant Society (INPS) on Facebook.

Northeast Chapter Events & Activities of the Indiana Native Plant Society lists Coming Up and past Events at various locations showing many of the plants and locations found on our various pages. Facebook: Northeast Chapter of Indiana Native Plant Society - INPS. [ See our Orchids page for more on the yellow lady slipper orchids and more. ]

Facebook About:

This is a Public Group devoted to discussion of Indiana native plants. It is sponsored by the Indiana Native Plant Society, whose mission is to promote the appreciation, preservation, scientific study, and use of plants native to Indiana; and to teach people about their beauty, diversity, and importance to our environment.

We come from all parts of the state, and share a love of wildflowers and an appreciation of the importance of their habitats. We are a diverse mix that includes naturalists, gardeners, environmentalists, botanists, artists, photographers, etc. We are volunteer-led, and we look forward to YOU becoming a member of the Indiana Native Plant Society! Learn more at indiananativeplants.org - Indiana Native Plant Society

Note that any photos posted in this group may be used by INPS for educational purposes.

Indiana Native Plant Finder

This database tool will help you choose garden-worthy Indiana native plants that fit your site and support pollinators. 

🥲🌱🌷 - [Image Description: A quote to by Robin Wall Kimmerer from her book Braiding Sweetgrass that says, “in some native languages the term for plants translates to those who take care of us.”]

Posted by Relentless Indigenous Woman on Thursday, February 2, 2023

Thursday, February 2, 2023 post by Relentless Indigenous Woman on Facebook:

🥲🌱🌷
[Image Description: A quote to by Robin Wall Kimmerer from her book Braiding Sweetgrass that says, “in some native languages the term for plants translates to those who take care of us.”]

  1. "IN SOME NATIVE LANGUAGES the term for plants translates to ‘those who take care of us.’” So writes Robin Wall Kimmerer in her book Braiding Sweetgrass: Indigenous Wisdom, Scientific Knowledge and the Teachings of Plants. A mother, member of the Citizen Potawatomi Nation, botanist and environmental biology professor, Kimmerer is renowned for her deeply personal wisdom about the human connection to Earth. Copied from Editor's Note The healing art of gardening Lisa Moore, Editorial Director Conservation Apr 01, 2022 National Wildlife Federation.
  2. Potawatomi Inn at Pokagon State Park in Steuben County, Indiana is named for the Potawatomi Indians who lived in the area before European settlement forced their removal in the 1838 Potatwatomi Trail of Death to Osawatomie, Kansas.
  3. Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Dowagiac, Michigan
  4. Potawatomi groups moved around a lot in early historic times. In the early 18th century, some groups of Potawatomis lived along the southern shore of Lake Michigan and along the Michigan-Indiana border. Thus, they occupied areas in extreme northern Indiana such as in the St. Joseph and Elkhart River drainages. In the 1770s, Potawatomi groups began moving as far south as the Wabash River, ranging over the northern part of the state. They also lived along the Kankakee and Calumet rivers. In 1838, the Potawatomis were removed from the state. Today, some Potawatomis continue to live in northern Indiana and southern Michigan. Copied from Historical Indians of Indiana For Young Readers at Indiana Department of Natural Resources.
  5. The Potawatomi Trail of Death was the forced removal by militia in 1838 of about 859 members of the Potawatomi nation from Indiana to reservation lands in what is now eastern Kansas. The march began at Twin Lakes, Indiana (Myers Lake and Cook Lake, near Plymouth, Indiana) on November 4, 1838, along the western bank of the Osage River, ending near present-day Osawatomie, Kansas. During the journey of approximately 660 miles (1,060 km) over 61 days, more than 40 people died, most of them children. It was the single largest Indian removal in Indiana history. Copied from Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.

I get asked a lot about how to figure out what species are native to your area. So I wanted to share resources for...

Posted by Native Yardening on Saturday, July 13, 2024

Saturday, July 13, 2024 post by Native Yardening on Facebook:

I get asked a lot about how to figure out what species are native to your area.

So I wanted to share resources for folks in the USA (some also apply to Canada)

🌻 🇺🇸 The National Wildlife Federation has an excellent tool called the Native Plant Finder. It shows you what native species support the most wildlife in your zip code - these are called “keystone” species. https://nativeplantfinder.nwf.org/

🌻 🇺🇸 The NWF has another tool that tells you the best commercially available native host plant species based on your ecoregion. https://www.nwf.org/.../Native-Plants/Find-Available-Natives

🌻 🇺🇸🇨🇦 BONAP’s North American Plant Atlas has a prolific database of range maps for species in the US and Canada listed by botanical name https://bonap.net/Napa/

🌻 🇺🇸🇨🇦 The Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center’s website has a search tool where you can input your state or province, growing conditions, and other descriptors like bloom time, height, lifespan, etc., and search their database for plant species that meet your criteria. https://www.wildflower.org/plants/

🌻 🇺🇸🇨🇦 Most states and provinces have a Native Plant Society that should have resources specific to your area. You can find your local Native Plant Society here: https://nanps.org/native-plant-societies/ [ See Indiana Native Plant Society ]

🌻 🇺🇸 Wild Ones is another organization that advocates for native plants and has chapters in most US states. Find your local chapter here: https://wildones.org/chapters/

🌻 🇺🇸🇨🇦 If you’re plant shopping and not sure where a species is from, do a quick google of “(species name) native range” Always use the botanical name because common names can apply to multiple species. I don’t recommend buying plants that aren’t labeled with the botanical name unless you’re 100% sure you know what it is.

🌻 🇺🇸 Audubon has a database of bird-friendly native plants based on zip code. https://audubon.org/native-plants

🌻 🌎 iNaturalist can help you identify plants that you’re unsure of what they are. You can also browse what’s been seen in your area, check a species’ status as native or introduced, etc. www.inaturalist.org

Some may question what do Wildlife and Plants have to do with genealogy research? It can be argued that without the agricultural revolution starting in the 19th century that allowed one farmer to produce more food, animal, and plant products on his land than his family needed and the industrial manufacturing revolution of the 20th century that allowed more people to make a better living away from the farm we would not have the luxury of researching our family history online in the 21st century. We might still be growing plants and animals for our own food and clothing for survival instead.

Some "garden hints" from 1927! These fun illustrations were published in newspapers across the U.S. that summer. See...

Posted by Newspapers.com on Thursday, June 13, 2024

Thursday, June 13, 2024 post by Newspapers.com on Facebook:

Some "garden hints" from 1927! These fun illustrations were published in newspapers across the U.S. that summer.

See this clipping in the Grand Island Independent on our site: Garden Hints, 1927 The Grand Island Independent, Grand Island, Nebraska, Friday, June 10, 1927, Page 6

Color prints from a rare, 18th century coloring book for #BotanicMonday! "The Florist" (1760) has recently been...

Posted by Biodiversity Heritage Library on Monday, July 10, 2017

Monday, July 10, 2017 post by the Biodiversity Heritage Library on Facebook:

Color prints from a rare, 18th century coloring book for #BotanicMonday! "The Florist" (1760) has recently been digitized and added to BHL by the Missouri Botanical Garden Peter H. Raven Library: The Florist: containing sixty plates of the most beautiful flowers

You can color the illustrations by downloading and printing the pages. Learn how to download images from BHL: What types of files are available for download?

"The Flortist" was printed in London in 1760 by Robert Sayer. It was specifically created as a coloring book and includes instructions for “drawing and painting according to nature.” Sayer wrote that it was a “new work intended for the use & amusement of gentlemen and ladies delighting in that art.”

The book is extremely rare, with fewer than 10 copies known to be held in libraries, and most of those are in Europe. The Missouri Botanical Garden's copy is particularly rare because none of the pages have been colored. 

Post information source: Forgotten, rare coloring book, 257 years old, found in Missouri Botanical Garden's library

[ Their online copy is shown below at the Internet Archive. ]

The florist :containing sixty plates of the most beautiful flowers regularly disposed in their succession of blowing. To which is added an accurate description of their colours with instructions for drawing and painting according to nature : being a new work intended for the use & amusement of gentlemen and ladies delighting in that art. by Sayer, Robert. Publication date 1760 on Archive.org.

During warmer months, we spend much more time in nature. We sent a handful of poisonous plant questions to expert James Wolff with Purdue Extension - Allen County, so we could all be a little more prepared.

Posted by Parkview Health on Friday, June 21, 2024

Friday, June 21, 2024 post by Parkview Health on Facebook:

During warmer months, we spend much more time in nature. We sent a handful of poisonous plant questions to expert James Wolff with Purdue Extension - Allen County, so we could all be a little more prepared.

A primer on poisonous plants in our area

The most common plants that can cause adverse reactions to the skin if contacted are poison ivy, poison sumac and poison hemlock. Poison hemlock is becoming an increasingly common weed in the area.

Happy National Pollinator Week! Did you know that Indiana is home to many pollinators including 430 species of bees, 144...

Posted by Indiana Natural Resources Foundation on Tuesday, June 20, 2023

Tuesday, June 20, 2023 post by the Indiana Natural Resources Foundation on Facebook:

Happy National Pollinator Week! Did you know that Indiana is home to many pollinators including 430 species of bees, 144 species of butterflies, more than 1,000 species of moths, as well as flower-visiting flies, wasps, ants, beetles, and birds?

Want to learn more about pollinators in Indiana? Visit 'Pollinator' Events and attend one of the many pollinator themed events taking place at DNR properties this week!

📸 Red admiral butterfly on Miami mist at Turkey Run State Park

1878 - Read This! - largest assortment - lists trees, shrubs, plants for streets cemetery grounds Fort Wayne Daily News, Fort Wayne, Indiana, Tuesday, April 23, 1878, Page 4.

On lot 109 Calhoun street adjoining the Sentinel building, and Calhoun and Washington streets listing various trees, shrubs, evergreens, and other plants using variations of modern scientific names. Don't see a name for the business or owner.

BONAP

June 12, 2024 pinned post on Indiana Native Plant Society (INPS) on Facebook:

A great reminder from Emily Finch on how to use BONAP to determine if a species is native to Indiana.

May 10, 2023 post on Facebook:

How to find out if something is native, a refresher! So a while back when I was still learning, someone (maybe Ellen Jacquart) shared a link not only to BONAP, but directly to their Query Page, where it is easy to search for a species distribution map based on the scientific name. I have since saved this link in my bookmarks and use it often! http://bonap.net/tdc...

Here are two comparisons between a native and an exotic species in BONAP (native Pineapple Weed and nonnative Wild Chamomile which came up on a recent post), along with the color key! Note that sometimes a species in green since it is native to North America, but in a particular state it will be color TEAL, for adventive, ie. not historically native to that area.

Botanists and other experts please chime in with any other tips, tricks, and thoughts you have about using BONAP.

[ BONAP The Biota of North America Program North American Vascular Flora ]

In the 20th century cemeteries used to have water spigots for watering plants. Lindenwood Cemetery used to have them too, have they been removed?
2024 water spigots in St. John's Luteran Cemetery
Yucca planted around tombstones
Yucca planted next to tombstone

October 16, 2021 post by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources on Facebook:

German names can be found in almost every cemetery in Indiana; every county has thousands of gravestones of persons with German heritage. Friendship Methodist Church Cemetery, in Samaria, (left photo) and St. Ferdinand Catholic Cemetery, in Ferdinand, contain good examples (right photos). Some gravestones are written in German or indicate a German place of birth. Some cemeteries and markers contain only hints of German heritage. Planting yucca to keep souls in the ground is a folk tradition from Germany and Northern Europe which came with immigrants as they settled southern Indiana. The shape or material of a marker can indicate heritage, such as wrought iron crosses, which are often found in Catholic German cemeteries. For more information on these and other historic places visit our online database at on.IN.gov/shaard.

 

Yucca plants in cemeteries was discussed January 15, 2019 on the Indiana Native Plant Society (INPS) group on Facebook.

"In the wild, every square inch of soil is covered with a mosaic of interlocking plants, but in our gardens, we arrange...

Posted by Northeast Chapter of Indiana Native Plant Society - INPS on Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Wednesday, April 24, 2019 post by the Northeast Chapter of Indiana Native Plant Society - INPS on Facebook:

"In the wild, every square inch of soil is covered with a mosaic of interlocking plants, but in our gardens, we arrange plants as individual objects in a sea of mulch. We place them in solitary confinement."

Instead we should look at our native plants as "social creatures. Our garden plants evolved as members of diverse social networks."

Take Butterflyweed, for example. Its flowers are the same height of the grasses it grows amongst. "Its narrow leaves hug its stems to efficiently emerge through a crowded mix. It has a taproot that drills through the fibrous roots of grasses. Everything about that plant is a reaction to its social network."  

Understanding What Makes Plants Happy April 30, 2017 New York Times

Jeffries Cemetery is in neighboring Whitley County near Churubusco not far from Eel River Cemetery here in Allen County. It was on the farm where the website coordinator's mother grew up in the 1930s. The photo shows several native plants some call wildflowers, others call them weeds. White flowers are probably spring beauties. The yellow flowers will be identified at a later time. It has been cleaned up so likely no longer looks like this.

Jeffries Cemetery is located on 300N, just west of 825E in Churubusco. Jefferies Cemetery has just under 70 graves....

Posted by Friends of Concord and Jeffries Cemetery on Thursday, May 18, 2023

Thursday, May 18, 2023 post by Friends of Concord and Jeffries Cemetery on Facebook:

Jeffries Cemetery is located on 300N, just west of 825E in Churubusco. Jefferies Cemetery has just under 70 graves. History tells us that this cemetery holds black and Indian graves from the 1800’s. We will begin an initial cleanup this month and again in June. If you would like to volunteer please let us know.
Stay tuned for that cleanup date!

If you would like to donate to this project you can send checks to the Community Foundation of Whitley County, 400 N. Whitley St. Columbia City, IN. 46725. Attention: Concord/Jefferies Cemetery. 

  1. 36-page Fort Wayne Plant List with photos and information by the City of Fort Wayne. Native plant species are recommended over exotic foreign species because they are well adapted to local climate conditions. This will result in less replacement and maintenance, while supporting the local ecology.
  2. 28-page Historic Vegetation Patterns of Indiana State Forests Summarized from General Land Office Survey Notes By Hannah Ryker and AJ Ariens, IN DNR – Division of Forestry, 402 W. Washington St., Rm W296, Indianapolis, IN 46204,February 2018 Indiana Department of Natural Resources.
  3. Manual of cultivated plants most commonly grown in the continental United States and Canada, 1128 pages, publication date 1949 and Hortus third : a concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada, 1320 pages, publication date 1976 by Bailey, Liberty Hyde, 1858-on Archive.org.
  4. Plants Past: An Historian's Use of Vegetation as Material Culture Evidence, Thomas J. Schlereth, Environmental Review, Vol. 4, No. 1 (1980), pp. 20-28 (9 pages), Published By: The University of Chicago Press at jstor.org
  5. Summer Weed Program

    The Weed Program was developed to protect the public safety, health and welfare and enhance the environment of the City of Fort Wayne by eliminating tall grass, high weeds and other noxious vegetation (including poison ivy). Per the City's Ordinance (Chapter 100: Nuisances), a violation exists when the grass exceeds nine (9) inches or there is other poisonous vegetation on the property. [ CHAPTER 100: NUISANCES at American Legal Publishing ]

    Neighborhood Code Compliance's Weed Program is both proactive and reactive in its enforcement. Complaints come through the 311 Call Center, and the Weed Inspectors are responsible for canvasing their specific territory. Once a yard is deemed to be in violation, a placard is placed in the yard, and a letter to abate is sent to the owner of record. Property owners then have five (5) days to correct the violation. If grass, weeds, or noxious vegetation are not removed within that timeframe, the City's mowing contractors will cut the lawn and/or remove the noxious vegetation, and subsequently, the owner will be charged for the cost of the mowing which will include an administrative fee. If the mowing invoice is not paid within 30 days, a lien will be placed on the property.

    From the Community Development at the City of Fort Wayne

  6. Earth Day 2024.mp4

    Are you celebrating #EarthDay by gardening? Here are some tips to keep habitats healthy for overwintering native species and pollinators. 🌸 🌎 🐝

    Posted by Indiana Michigan Power on Monday, April 22, 2024

    Monday, April 22, 2024 video post by Indiana Michigan Power on Facebook:

    Are you celebrating #EarthDay by gardening? Here are some tips to keep habitats healthy for overwintering native species and pollinators. 🌸   🌎   🐝

Pioneer families often brought plants and animals from their home countries for various reasons whether food sources or memories not realizing they were going to cause future problems with the native wildlife already here.

You may know many of the 126 plants currently listed as "officially invasive" in Indiana, but do you know the history of...

Posted by State of Indiana Cooperative Invasives Management on Thursday, February 23, 2023

February 23, 2023 post by State of Indiana Cooperative Invasives Management on Facebook:

You may know many of the 126 plants currently listed as "officially invasive" in Indiana, but do you know the history of their arrival?

In this program, Amanda Smith and Steve Sass of Indiana Nature LLC will take a historical journey from European settlement to the current day tracing how these species found their way to the United States. The program will reflect upon the historical factors that contributed to their arrival and examine the lessons learned and unlearned.

What’s an Invasive Plant? at the  Indiana Native Plant Society.

Botanical Time Bombs: A Historical Look at the Introductions of Indiana’s Invasive Plants August 26, 2023 Indiana Native Plant Society on YouTube
Presentation by Stephen Sass and Amanda Smith of Indiana Nature LLC to the Central Chapter of the Indiana Native Plant Society, April 2023.

You may know many of the 126 plants currently listed as “officially invasive” in Indiana, but do you know the history of their arrival? In this program, Steve Sass and Amanda Smith take a historical journey from European settlement to the current day, tracing how these species found their way to the United States, reflecting upon the historical factors that contributed to their arrival, and examining the lessons learned and unlearned.

INPS: Our Community November 11, 2023 Indiana Native Plant Society on YouTube
We bring together interesting people from all walks of life, experts and novices, to collaborate on programs and activities advancing our mission. Many a lasting friendship has been formed while engaging with the Indiana Native Plant Society. We invite you to join in the fun.

Flax was grown to make cloth

We will soon begin planting this years' flax crop. Our little batch last year turned out nicely. We are expanding from...

Posted by Johnston Farm & Indian Agency on Monday, May 13, 2024

Monday, May 13, 2024 post by the Johnston Farm & Indian Agency on Facebook:

We will soon begin planting this years' flax crop. Our little batch last year turned out nicely. We are expanding from an app. 3 x 3 foot area to 12 x 12 foot this year. There is reference to the Johnston's growing flax in Ireland, as well as in the United States. Noted in one of Mr. Johnston's list are the following items: 3 ten cut hank, flax yarn, 2 cuts in one, and 1 eight cut hank flax tied in same way

[ comments indicate a 12x12 area might make a hanky size cloth. Another say a 20x20 plot is enough cloth to make a shirt. ]

Two species of wild strawberry occur widely across North America: Virginia Strawberry (Fragaria virginiana) is...

Posted by Peterson Field Guides on Monday, June 30, 2014

Monday, June 30, 2014 post by Peterson Field Guides on Facebook:

Two species of wild strawberry occur widely across North America: Virginia Strawberry (Fragaria virginiana) is associated with meadows and open areas, while Woodland Strawberry (F. vesca) is more typically found in forested habitats. The Virginia Strawberry is one of the two wild strawberry species that were crossed to eventually create the domesticated strawberry we know and love today (the other is a species from Chile, and the actual hybridization was done in France). Wild strawberries are significantly smaller than their domesticated cousins, but are often considerably sweeter. They reproduce by both seed and runner, the latter often resulting in large strawberry patches.

[Photo by Leah Grunzke (Occidental Botanist) on Flickr; CC-licensed]

Most of our food plants are not native to our area, while some will grow here, most commercial production is located elsewhere.

These images of fruits before we domesticated them will blow y...

These images of fruits before we domesticated them will blow your mind.

Posted by Grub Street on Tuesday, March 22, 2016

Tuesday, March 22, 2016 post by Grub Street (Grub Street is a New York magazine site) on Facebook:

These images of fruits before we domesticated them will blow your mind.

[ Comparison shows banana, watermelon, egg plant, carrot, corn. ]


A common roadside "weed"
Queen Anne's lace, Daucus carota is also called wild carrot because this is the European plant that cultivated carrots were developed from. It was brought to North America with the colonists as a medicinal plant and is now naturalized throughout the continent. See Queen Anne's Lace, Daucus carota at Wisconsin Horticulture Division of Extension

Spring Gardening Season 2024 Episode 3218 | 27m 27s

Guest: Ricky Kemery (Retired Purdue Horticulture Extension Educator). This area’s only in-depth, live, weekly news, analysis and cultural update forum, PrimeTime airs Fridays at 7:30pm. This program is hosted by PBS Fort Wayne’s President/General Manager Bruce Haines.

Aired: 05/04/24 Rating: NR

Landscape Worthy Natives: Outstanding Native Trees & Shrubs, & Their Wildlife ValuesApril 6, 2022 18WJTS on YouTube
Presented By: Invasive Species Awareness Coalition of Dubois County & Jasper -Dubois County Public Libraries
Speakers: Sally Weeks & Harmon Weeks
Recorded: March 31, 2022 - Vincennes University Jasper Campus
Aired: April 5, 2022

The Origin of April Showers Bring May Flowers - 1800flowers.com.

Page 103, Five hundred pointes of good husbandrie. The ed. of 1580 collated with those of 1573 and 1577. Together with a reprint from the unique copy in the British Museum, of A hundreth good pointes of husbandrie, 1557 by Tusser, Thomas, 1524-1580; Herrtage, Sidney John Hervon; Payne, William, Publication date 1878

48. Aprils husbandrie.

Chap. 38.

Sweete April showers, Forgotten month past,
Doo spring Maie flowers. Doe now at the last.

In Cambridge shire forward to Lincolne shire way,
the champion maketh his fallow in May.
Then thinking so dooing one tillage woorth twaine,
by forcing of weede, by that meanes to refraine.

"In the wild, every square inch of soil is covered with a mosaic of interlocking plants, but in our gardens, we arrange...

Posted by Northeast Chapter of Indiana Native Plant Society - INPS on Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Wednesday, April 24, 2019 post by the Northeast Chapter of Indiana Native Plant Society - INPS on Facebook:

"In the wild, every square inch of soil is covered with a mosaic of interlocking plants, but in our gardens, we arrange plants as individual objects in a sea of mulch. We place them in solitary confinement."

Instead we should look at our native plants as "social creatures. Our garden plants evolved as members of diverse social networks."

Take Butterflyweed, for example. Its flowers are the same height of the grasses it grows amongst. "Its narrow leaves hug its stems to efficiently emerge through a crowded mix. It has a taproot that drills through the fibrous roots of grasses. Everything about that plant is a reaction to its social network."

Understanding What Makes Plants Happy

INDNR Allen County Nature Preserves

Interactive Allen County map on the Nature Preserves page of the Indiana Department of Natural Resources.

Laws of Indiana relating to the conservation of natural resources, including the laws relating to geology, natural gas, entomology, forestry, lands and waters and fish and game by Indiana; Indiana. Dept. of Conservation; Indiana Bureau of Legislative Information; United States. Laws, statutes, etc; Lieber, Richard, 1869-1944; Kettleborough, Charles, Publication date 1919 on Archive.org

April 11, 2024 INDNR promoting native plants

April 11, 2024 post by the Indiana DNR Division of Fish and Wildlife on Facebook:

Put on your gardening gloves, dig into the soil, and become a steward of the land by growing native Indiana plants!

Our state has a rich natural history, so restoring your yard into a haven for native plants is a fantastic way to honor that history while creating a better habitat for the future. The biodiversity of native plants will attract many of your favorite pollinators, enrich your yard, and revitalize Indiana native wildlife. 🦋

Learn how to add native plants to your landscape here: Indiana Native Plant Society

ACRES Land Trust Allen County Preserves

ACRES Land Trust Allen County Preserves . See our ACRES page.

#OnThisDay in 1739, William Bartram was born in Philadelphia. The younger Bartram was a botanist, explorer, and...

Posted by Historical Society of Pennsylvania on Wednesday, April 20, 2022

Wednesday, April 20, 2022 post by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania on Facebook:

#OnThisDay in 1739, William Bartram was born in Philadelphia. The younger Bartram was a botanist, explorer, and ornithologist.

Pictured here is an excerpt from Bartram’s Pharmacoepia, his notebook of pharmaceutical recipes to treat various ailments. View more of his recipes here: William Bartram Pharmacoepia.

#WilliamBartram #botany #MakeHistoryYours

  1. William Bartram, Indigenous Botany, and the Roots of American Medicine on Bartram's Garden.org.
  2. Bartram Family papers 47-pages at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
  3. "Bartram, William, 1739-1823" over 30 volumes on Archive.org.

Lindenwood Nature Preserve, 600 Lindenwood Avenue, is on the west side of Lindenwood Cemetery just across the road. It is a 110-acre wooded park featuring four hiking trails of varying lengths (one is wheelchair and stroller accessible) and a pond that allows visitors to see what the cemetery grounds and a lot of Allen County looked like when the cemetery opened in 1859.

Today is a beautiful day to come out and see some spring wildflowers at Lindenwood Nature Preserve. Lots of our wildlife are enjoying the pleasant temperatures as well!

Posted by Lindenwood Nature Preserve on Tuesday, April 9, 2024

Tuesday, April 9, 2024 post by the Lindenwood Nature Preserve on Facebook:

Today is a beautiful day to come out and see some spring wildflowers at Lindenwood Nature Preserve. Lots of our wildlife are enjoying the pleasant temperatures as well!

We have all seen those clumps of daffodils that are seemingly in the middle of nowhere. Well maybe it is "nowhere"...

Posted by Extension Master Gardener on Sunday, April 9, 2017

Sunday, April 9, 2017 post by the Extension Master Gardener on Facebook:

We have all seen those clumps of daffodils that are seemingly in the middle of nowhere.

Well maybe it is "nowhere" now, but that wasn't always the case.

This is an interesting short article on how the particular cultivar of daffodil can provide historical information on when it may have been planted and by whom.

'Blooms and Borders: How Daffodils Reveal Historic Buildings Foundations' via Southern Rambles, an outreach initiative of the Center for Historic Preservation (CHP) at Middle Tennessee State University.

Blooms and Borders: How Daffodils Reveal Historic Building Foundations April 3, 2017 Sherry Teal, CHP Graduate Research Assistant Southern Rambles.

A key paragraph from the article referring to the Southeast is:

According to the American Daffodil Society, there are now more than 40 species of daffodils and more than 20,000 registered cultivars. N. pseudonarcissus and N. incomparabilis are two of the popular cultivars planted in the Southeast (see William C. Welch, Heirloom Gardening in the South : Yesterday’s Plants for Today’s Gardens, 2011, pp. 352-4). Because there is a register of cultivars, we can narrow down the time frame of a building’s construction through the presence of daffodils. Daffodils can also mark the presence of graves when the tombstones have fallen and the slow accumulation of dirt covers them as the decade pass.

**************

February 16, 1874 is the earliest mention of growing a daffodil in Fort Wayne, IN papers found so far! in the The Fort Wayne Sentinel, Fort Wayne, Indiana, Monday, February 16, 1874, Page 2 on Newspapers.com.

September 25, 1753 is the earliest mention of daffodils in newspaper found so far - To the Virtuosi in Flowers in The Gloucester Journal, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England, Tuesday, September 25, 1753, Page 3 on Newspapers.com.

**************

  1. Daffodils are not native plants and rarely produce seed on their own. Daffodil pollen is too heavy to be windblown, and there isn’t nectar to attract pollinating insects. Copied from Do Daffodils Spread? Brent & Becky's Admin March 27, 2019 on The Bulb Blog. So when they are found growing in undeveloped or formerly occupied overgrown places the presence of daffodils most likely indicates previous human activity.
  2. Daffodils did not become popular as ornamentals until the late 1800s, long after tulips were all the rage. Copied rom Narcissus: The Daffodil at PennState Extension.
  3. After the establishment of the Virginia Company in 1606 and the settlement of Jamestown colony in 1609, daffodil bulbs were transported by sailing ships from Britain to America, often by women colonists who brought them along as a reminder of home. The bulbs adapted readily to the climate and conditions of the Virginia Tidewater region, and particularly the area known as the Middle Peninsula, which includes Gloucester and Mathews counties.
    I wandered lonely as a cloud
    That floats on high o'er vales and hills,
    When all at once I saw a crowd,
    A host, of golden daffodils

    —William Wadsworth, published 1807
    Caption of a historic marker in Gloucester, Virginia on Main Street: In his famous poem Wordsworth could have been referring to Gloucester and Mathews Counties, Virginia, where by the 1800's naturalized and planted daffodils bloomed
    Copied from Daffodils Arrived Here With the Colonists Marker in abundance each Spring. Copied from Daffodils Arrived Here With the Colonists History of the Daffodil in Gloucester County on The Historical Marker Datatbase HMdb.org
2023 USDA Plant Zone Hardiness Map

2023 USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map

2023 USDA Plant Zone Hardiness Map

2023 USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map Fort Wayne zone 6a (-10 to -5 °F/-23.3 to -20.6 °C) Temperature Change 2012-2023 +2°F

 USDA Unveils Updated Plant Hardiness Zone Map USDA Agricultural Research Service November 15, 2023

1916 - Make Definite Plants to Have A Beautiful Rose Garden Next Year

Article from Nov 29, 1916 The Weekly Sentinel (Fort Wayne, Indiana) Fort wayne, Indiana, 1916, Rose garden
1916 - Make Definite Plants to Have A Beautiful Rose Garden Next Year The Weekly Sentinel, Fort Wayne, Indiana, Wednesday, November 29, 1916, Page 10

Have you ever heard the popping sound when walking near a patch of Wild Petunia (Ruellia humilis) during the fall time?...

Posted by Indiana Native Seed Communities on Tuesday, April 11, 2023

Tuesday, April 11, 2023 post by the Indiana Native Seed Communities on Facebook:

Have you ever heard the popping sound when walking near a patch of Wild Petunia (Ruellia humilis) during the fall time? If so, you were witnessing the ballichorous dispersal of the Wild Petunia's seed. Ballichory, or ballistic, dispersal of the plant's seeds is when the seeds are actively or passively catapulted away from the plant.

#seedsaving #indiananativeplantsociety #nativeseeds #nativeplantsociety #nativeplants #nativeseed #indiananativeplants

Outhouse Flowers

Several colorful flowering plants that grow tall enough to hide outhouses have been called outhouse flowers. They allowed users to ask where those particular flowers were located rather than ask to use the outhouse. See Outhouses on our Diseases page.

  1. Alcea rosea, outhouse hollyhocks were tall enough to hide outhouses, and also as a signal to guests to discretely ask where were the hollyhock were located to use the outhouse. Some seed companies sell them as Outhouse Hollyhocks.
  2. Rudbeckia laciniata hortensia a tall native plant with bright yellow flowers is sometimes known as the outhouse flower, shithouse daisy, goldendrop, goldenglow, cutleaf coneflower (or just cutleaf), green-headed coneflower, tall coneflower, sochan and thimbleweed, is in the aster family, asteraceae.
  3. Since it’s an unofficial lilac day, here’s our story on early America’s use of the plant…and why you see them near old farmhouses.

    Posted by OrangeBean on Tuesday, April 23, 2024

    Tuesday, April 23, 2024 post by OrangeBean on Facebook:

    Since it’s an unofficial lilac day, here’s our story on early America’s use of the plant…and why you see them near old farmhouses.

    The Truth About Lilac Bushes 

     

    "When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd" is a long-form poem by Walt Whitman, written as a response to the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln in 1865. Considered one of the greatest American poems, it explores themes of grief, loss, and the ongoing cycle of life and death.

Native Plants

Native plants are the plants already growing here when Europeans arrived and started recording what was living here as they settled the country.

Native Keystone Plants for Wildlife - Doug Tallamy August 13, 2021 National Wildlife on YouTube.
Keystone plants are natives that are essential to our ecosystems because they support 90% of the caterpillar species that enable our terrestrial birds to reproduce, as well as all of our specialist native bee species. Join Garden for Wildlife™ collaborator, Entomologist Doug Tallamy, as he shares the importance of keystone plants and how they support healthy wildlife communities

  1. Mt. Cuba Center in Delaware is a nonprofit botanic garden that highlights the beauty and value of native plants to inspire conservation. Wednesday, June 17, 2020 Cover Photo post by Mt. Cuba Center on Facebook.
  2. Indiana Native Seed CommunitiesFacebook page: https://www.facebook.com/groups/525266728469540

    About: Indiana Native Seed Communities, a project of Indiana Native Plant Society, is a Public Group devoted to the discussion of procuring, processing and propagating seeds of plants native to Indiana.

    Native Seed Communities promotes networks of native plant enthusiasts working together to regionally procure, prepare, and propagate native plant seeds to increase the presence of ecologically appropriate native plants in all landscapes.

    For more information on Native Seed Communities project, check out our resources on our INPS website, Growing Native Plants from Seed https://indiananativeplants.org/growing-native-plants-from-seed/.

    People from all walks of life and at different stages in their understanding of native plants and how to propagate them from seed are welcome to participate.

Identify Indiana Wildflowers with Wake Up, Woods

Can you recognize Indiana's most common native plants? Thanks to family walks and "Wake Up, Woods," our team member Kristen and her kids can. You can find this Hoosier book at your local bookstore or read our review: https://bit.ly/38YbTPu

Posted by Indiana Authors Awards on Thursday, May 7, 2020

Thursday, May 7, 2020 video post by Indiana Authors Awards on Facebook:

Can you recognize Indiana's most common native plants? Thanks to family walks and "Wake Up, Woods," our team member Kristen and her kids can. You can find this Hoosier book at your local bookstore or read our review: Wake Up, Woods Book Review

"Wake Up, Woods" is a beautiful children's picture book about native spring plants of the woodlands of Indiana....

Posted by LC Nature Park on Wednesday, May 10, 2023

Wednesday, May 10, 2023 post by LC Nature Park on Facebook:

"Wake Up, Woods" is a beautiful children's picture book about native spring plants of the woodlands of Indiana.

Written by Michael Homoya, botanist and ecologist; Shane Gibson, poet; and Gillian Harris, Illustrator - this book will show kids and adults alike what to look for when walking thru the woods, parks, or even our yards.

Saturdays hike is all about what's waking up in our woods as we hike along our trails, looking for all the spring plants talked about in the book. (You may not find them all, but you will definitely find a bunch!)

For more information about this amazing book, check out https://indiananativeplants.org/education/wakeupwoods/

Doug Tallamy, Bringing Nature Home: The Importance of Native Plants January 14, 2022 Denise Ellsworth on YouTube
Part of the Tending Nature speaker series sponsored by The Ohio State University. More details here: http://go.osu.edu/tendingnature

Allen County Partnership for Water Quality

Posted by Allen County Department of Environmental Management on Sunday, May 7, 2023

Sunday, May 7, 2023 post by Allen County Department of Environmental Management on Facebook:

Allen County Partnership for Water Quality

March 6, 2018 cover photo post by the Indiana Native Plant Society on Facebook: https://indiananativeplants.org/

Butterfly garden at Geist Christian Church, 12756 Promise Road, Fishers, Indiana.

 The tall "sunflower" in the back is cup-plant (Silphium perfoliatum). The milkweed is swamp milkweed (Asclepias incarnata). Lilac flowers are "beebalm" Monarda didyma. Pink flowers are Phlox paniculata aka garden phlox.

Many Americans fear that unruly yards bring in pests and lower home values. An unruly yard is also seen as lazy...

Posted by Healthy Yards on Sunday, March 6, 2022

March 6, 2022 post by Healthy Yards on Facebook:

Many Americans fear that unruly yards bring in pests and lower home values. An unruly yard is also seen as lazy homeownership and as disrespect to those who invest time and money to be good citizens. If you can show that you too, care about your neighborhood, but do so in a different way, you can have a more respectful conversation. Mitigate the unruliness of your natural landscape by demonstrating it is intentional; Create clean lines and paths to show you do your 'maintenance'; Use signage and talk about your intentions. All around the country home owners associations and municipalities are adjusting their rules. Not because they are attacked for their conventional practices, but because most people do love birds and butterflies. www.healthyyards.org

Native plants and early Indiana botanical explorations posted March 22, 2014 on Archives of Hoosier History Live podcast on Saturdays, noon to 1 p.m. ET on WICR 88.7 FM. With, at long last, the arrival of spring - at least in terms of the calendar, if not the current weather - Hoosier History Live! will focus on our state's botanical heritage. And a special co-host will guide us during our look at native plants and early botanical explorations. ... So Jo Ellen [Meyers Sharp] and Michael [Homoya] will be ideal for this show, during which we will dig deep into botanical explorations across Indiana. The first known one occurred in 1795 by French explorer Andre Michaux. Some of Michaux's collections from the Indiana wilderness still exist in the national herbarium in Paris, according to Michael, who has personally seen them. Our first state forester, Charlie Deam (1865-1953), grew up on a family farm in Wells County and went on to chronicle native plants across the state, including specific locations in counties and townships. Known as the "father of Indiana botany," he collected more than 73,000 plant specimens from across Indiana, according to Michael Homoya. (His collection is now housed at the herbarium at Indiana University.) 

Blooms and Borders: How Daffodils Reveal Historic Building Foundations April 3, 2017 by Sherry Teal, CHP Graduate Research Assistant on Southern Rambles blog.

Milksickness was a deadly illiness for early pioneers taking the life of Nancy Hanks Lincoln October 5, 1818 in Spencer County, Indiana, mother of future President Abraham Lincoln. See our 1818 Timeline.

The Naturalist's Library by Jardine, William, Sir, 1800-1874 40 volumes at the University of California Libraries, also on Archive.org shows lots of early wildlife in the 19th century, such as our common ruby-throated hummingbird, the Ruby-crested Hummingbird on page 147 in the The Naturalist's Library Ornithology Humming Birds, Part I, Vol. VI. printed in London, probably in the 1860s. Unfortunately the first 25 pages are missing.

The plant world is bursting with variations in color and form underpinned by genetic diversity. Our world would not be...

Posted by Native Plant Trust on Wednesday, March 2, 2022

March 2, 2022 post by the Native Plant Trust on Facebook:

The plant world is bursting with variations in color and form underpinned by genetic diversity. Our world would not be as rich and inspiring if each organism was exactly like others of its kind. Growing plants from seed embraces the fact that there will be variation and difference in what emerges. These Canada lilies (Lilium canadense) are an excellent example of variation in flower color, in the degree and abundance of spots found on the petals. This is why Native Plant Trust strives to grow and offer for sale native plants grown from seeds that were sourced locally, an approach that welcomes plants that do not all look the same and embraces the inherent genetic diversity found within those seeds. When that genetic potential is expressed by the plants themselves, the results are simply marvelous. —Director of Horticulture Uli Lorimer

Photos (all Uli Lorimer ©Native Plant Trust): Canada lilies (Lilium canadense) inflorescences

Is your community making it difficult for you to show your love for native plants at home and make a positive impact...

Posted by Hoosier Environmental Council on Saturday, May 11, 2024

Saturday, May 11, 2024 post by the Hoosier Environmental Council on Facebook:

Is your community making it difficult for you to show your love for native plants at home and make a positive impact where you live?

Join us for our third webinar in our Native Plants series, "Beyond Lawns: How to Advocate for Native Plants in Local Ordinances and HOA Rules" on May 29th at 7pm. You'll learn how to effectively advocate for changes to outdated local ordinances and your Homeowner Association/HOA rules to reduce restrictions and promote the use of native plants.

Landscaping with Native Plants, Cost Savings & More to Dig! April 1, 2024 hecweb1 on YouTube
Have you heard the buzz about native plants lately? Whether in home gardens, city parks, your neighbor's yard, or maybe even in your HOA, native plants are making their way into a number of landscapes. Are you wondering what the big deal is?

Check out our webinar, Landscaping with Native Plants, Cost Savings and More to Dig!, recorded on March 21. Featured presenters include Liz Masur, native plant enthusiast and newly elected member of the City of Lawrence Common Council, and HEC's Jeni Jenkins, who has years of experience of landscaping with native plants. Learn why native plants are such a hot topic, and how replacing even a little bit of turf grass with native plants can make a big difference in your pocketbook, your health, and your community! Whether you are an individual, a community representative, or a member of your neighborhood HOA, learn why even non-gardeners can join in on the native plant movement.

Rethink your Lawn: Adding Native Plants to Your Home Landscape April 25, 2024

To cap off National Pollinator Week, here are a few tips to create a Pollinator Paradise in your own backyard! 🌺⁠ Did...

Posted by LC Nature Park on Friday, June 21, 2024

Friday, June 21, 2024 post by LC Nature Park on Facebook:

To cap off National Pollinator Week, here are a few tips to create a Pollinator Paradise in your own backyard! 🌺

Did you know that native plants are a lifeline for local pollinators?⁠

In the Midwest, species like Purple Coneflower, Butterfly Milkweed, Wild Bergamot, and Sweet Joe-Pye-weed (pictured) are essential. These plants offer nectar and pollen and provide habitats for our beloved pollinators.

Start by planting various flowers that bloom at different times of the year to support biodiversity and the crucial roles these plants play in our ecosystem.

Incorporate native plants, avoid pesticides, and provide water sources like a shallow dish with stones. Even small changes can make a big difference. By planting native species in our gardens and parks, we enhance the natural beauty of our community and transform our gardens into thriving ecosystems for bees, butterflies, and more! 🌱🐝🌼

[ See our LC Nature Park ]

I often hear people defend invasive plants by saying “But it’s medicinal!” And yes, that’s the reason some invasive...

Posted by Native Yardening on Thursday, July 11, 2024

Thursday, July 11, 2024 post by Native Yardening on Facebook:

I often hear people defend invasive plants by saying “But it’s medicinal!”

And yes, that’s the reason some invasive species were brought to North America in the first place.

But because they evolved in different parts of the world, they don’t fit into the natural checks and balances of our native ecosystems and they’re able to overtake large areas.

If you’re someone who uses invasive species medicinally, I have good news.

If a species is invasive to your area, you don’t need to intentionally plant it in your yard. It’s already growing all around you. And you’re actually doing a favor to the environment by harvesting as much of it as you can.

And if you have a garden where you grow medicinal plants, you can use that space to grow ones that are native to where you live.

Now you have a wider range of plants to work with AND it’s eco-friendly.

Here are a few of the many medicinal plant species that are native to North America.

Plant medicine is sacred to many cultures. You don’t have to use plant medicine, but please be respectful of it.

Some of these plants have research in western literature backing up the benefits, others do not. They’ve all been traditionally used for these benefits. Do with that information what you will.

The listed benefits and species are not exhaustive. Research what part(s) of each plant are used and how to prepare them properly before consuming anything.

*Consult your doctor before consuming any new herbs or supplements, research drug interactions and side effects, and never consume a plant if you’re not 100% sure you’ve identified it correctly, none of this is medical advice*

[ See Bee Balm, Wild Geranium, Witch Hazel ]

Baptisia

Native Plant of the Week: Blue False Indigo (Baptisia australis) Every garden should have false blue indigo (Baptisia...

Posted by Indiana Native Plant Society on Monday, April 15, 2019

Monday, April 15, 2019 post by the Indiana Native Plant Society on Facebook:

Native Plant of the Week: Blue False Indigo (Baptisia australis)

Every garden should have false blue indigo (Baptisia australis), but lucky you if you find them in the wild in Indiana. They are extremely rare in Indiana, primarily along the Ohio River. (See map.)

They bloom best and do not need staked if planted in full sun, although they will tolerate some shade. In May and June, the 10- 12” flower stalks shoot up and are covered with blue pea-like flowers. The blooms are primarily pollinated by bumblebees seeking nectar.

It grows 3 to 4 feet tall with similar spread, resembling a small shrub. The foliage is an attractive blue-green all summer and is a host plant for several moths, skippers and butterflies.

Mid-summer, the seed pods start to form and create natural rattles that charm children and add a distinctive look to fall bouquets. Then is the time to harvest the seeds. The foliage looks good all summer even though seeds are formed.

Blue false indigo is slow to mature, at least to our eyes. The first few years, all its work is being done underground as it sends down a deep taproot (seven feet or more). This taproot will break up compacted soil, so it is a good plant to remediate your soil after construction. When you plant the seedling, be sure it's where you want to leave it as it is hard to transplant with the tap root.

There is a dwarf false blue indigo, Baptisia australis minor or sometimes Baptisia minor, but it does not occur in Indiana. Its native home is to the west of us.

Butterweed - Cressleaf groundsel - packera labella

During springtime (well, really just about any time) in Wabash County, it’s like God just took a paintbrush and put a...

Posted by Wabash County Historian on Wednesday, May 8, 2024

Wednesday, May 8, 2024 post by the Wabash County Historian on Facebook:

During springtime (well, really just about any time) in Wabash County, it’s like God just took a paintbrush and put a dap of color here and another there, all over the county. You may have seen this flower along the roadsides in Wabash County. It is called YELLOW GOAT’S BEARD also called Meadow Salsify, Star of Jerusalem or Noon Flower (the bloom closes up at noon). It is a member of the Aster family with the flower looking much like a daisy. The plant, besides being pretty, is said to have medicinal qualities especially to treat liver and gall bladder issues. A syrup made from the dry roots was used to treat coughs and bronchitis. Other claim that the leaves and shoots are good served in salads and soups (best in spring). The stems have been cooked like asparagus. The plant grows to 1-3 feet tall and attracts bees and other insects. Some consider it suitable for wildflower or pollinator gardens.

Comments:

The plant is commonly called BUTTERWEED or Cressleaf groundsel (packera labella) a member of the astor or daisy family. It is a native plant to Indiana but has become very invasive. In spring butterweed shoots up with a tall hollow stem topped with attractive, bright yellow flowers. Unfortunately, those flowers produce seeds that will spread with the wind. They spread so quickly that they are now showing up in flower gardens all over Wabash County. Not only do they spread quickly but they are toxic to cattle and horses. Deer, long ago, learned to ignore the plant. It is nice to enjoy the flowers but they should be cut down before they go to seed.

Also includes photos and description of LAMIUM also called PURPLE DEAD NETTLES and Chaemomeles better known to most of us as FLOWERING QUINCE.

Carnivorous Plants

They are still found in what little habitat remains in Allen County. A work in progress page with more information will appear eventually.

As we continue celebrating Ohio Native Plant Month, we turn to one of the most fascinating plants found in Ohio—the...

Posted by Ohio Division of Natural Areas and Preserves on Thursday, April 20, 2023

Thursday, April 20, 2023 post by the Ohio Division of Natural Areas and Preserves on Facebook:

As we continue celebrating Ohio Native Plant Month, we turn to one of the most fascinating plants found in Ohio—the carnivorous northern pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea). This highly evolved plant has found a unique way to thrive in bogs, which can be tough habitats (think low nutrients) for some species. More on that later.

The northern pitcher plant has pitcher-like modified leaves which can range in color from green to red with some lovely color and pattern variations. Its flowers appear in late spring or early summer with scarlet red petals and an umbrella-structure made of the sepals. Native pitcher plants may be found growing in the small number of specialized bogs and peatlands remaining in northeastern Ohio. Unfortunately, poaching and habitat loss has led to the decline of these distinctive plants; the northern pitcher plant is listed as threatened in Ohio.

Back to the pitcher plant’s carnivorous nature. Once the pitcher-like leaves collect with rainwater, insets unwittingly fall in and drown, creating a kind of “bug soup.” The hood of the pitcher has stiff downward pointing hairs preventing any trapped insects from climbing out.

Younger pitcher plants are known to produce some digestive enzymes to breakdown the insects, but in actuality, most of the work is done by larvae from mosquitoes and other insects living in the water-filled pitchers. Their waste settles to the bottom of the pitchers and the plant absorbs the remaining nutrients. It’s always fun to look inside the pitchers to see what’s on the menu for their next meals.

Check back tomorrow for another wildflower species profile. Throughout April, we will be introducing you to many of our favorite spring, summer, and even fall wildflowers as we continue our celebration of Ohio’s Native Plant Month!

Columbine - Aquilegia canadensis

Flora of Indiana on page 458 states: 2538. AQUILEGIA [Tourn.] L. 1. Aquilegia canadensis L. American Columbine. Map 941. Local throughout the state on the wooded bluffs of streams, wooded slopes and banks of streams, banks and slopes of deep ravines, and rarely far removed from stream courses. I have twice found it in open tamarack bogs where it was associated with Rhus Vernix and Rhamnus alnifolia. I have also frequently found it growing in the rocky crevices of cliffs along streams. I suspected this wide difference of habitat would show some difference in the structure of the plants but I find none. The plant when taken from the wild and planted in the garden thrives and reproduces freely from seed, which fact is not entirely consistent with its restricted distribution along streams. N. S. to Alberta, southw. to Fla. and Tex.

Wild columbine blooming along Fall Creek Gorge this afternoon. (5/4/16) --jf maxwell
May 4, 2016 post by Outdoor Indiana on Facebook:

Wild columbine blooming along Fall Creek Gorge this afternoon. (5/4/16) --jf maxwell

[ easy to why hummingbirds like the tubular flowers easily accessed in this wild setting ]

Eastern Prickly-Pear - Opuntia humifusa

Unknown if cactus was native to Allen County, but has been seen growing in Northwest Indiana counties. Will grow in proper conditions in a garden setting.

Have you ever considered that cactuses also need pollinating? Eastern Prickly-Pear (Opuntia humifusa) is the only native...

Posted by Mt. Cuba Center on Friday, July 2, 2021

Friday, July 2, 2021 post by Mt. Cuba Center on Facebook:

Have you ever considered that cactuses also need pollinating? Eastern Prickly-Pear (Opuntia humifusa) is the only native cactus that grows in eastern North America, thriving in rocky or well-drained soil in sunny locations. It blooms bright yellow flowers this time of year that attracts many native bees and other pollinators. Once pollinated, it bears small edible fruit that can be used for desserts, jams, and has even been used in beer! 🖋Charlene Thomforde

Ferns

Christmas Fern - Polystichum acrostichoides

Native Plant of the Week: Christmas fern (Polystichum acrostichoides) “Christmas ferns, like all ferns have no flowers...

Posted by Indiana Native Plant Society on Monday, December 23, 2019

Monday, December 23, 2019 post by the Indiana Native Plant Society on Facebook:

Native Plant of the Week: Christmas fern (Polystichum acrostichoides)

“Christmas ferns, like all ferns have no flowers or seeds. They produce spores instead. While spores are not seeds, they have a similar purpose and are most commonly found on the undersurface of the fern leaf. A germinating spore will grow into a tiny, usually flat and green plant called a gametophyte. It is here where reproductive cells bond together and grow into a new spore-producing fern. In spring, each fern stalk emerges as a curled up “fiddlehead” that slowly unrolls and expands to its full leafy form. Christmas fern’s evergreen leaves were once popular for decorating during the Christmas season, thus the common name. “ Description by Michael Homoya in Wake Up, Woods, used with permission by the Indiana Native Plant Society

In the bleak mid-winter, a woodland hike can bring surprises of green, especially if the soil is mesic to slightly dry with lots of leaf litter. I remember my delight when I first saw the Christmas fern in such a woods. It is 18 to 30 inches tall with compound leaves up to two feet long and five inches across. Each compound leaf has 20 to 40 glossy leaflets. Fertile fronds are longer and the top third becomes noticeably narrower.

Its wildlife value is fairly limited but does provide important habitat for ground feeding and nesting species as the plants and plant detritus form a dense mass of leaves over the soil surface. This also aids in erosion control. Since it is often found on steep slopes, erosion control is a crucial benefit of this plant.

Using Christmas ferns adds winter interest in a cultivated shade garden with its glossy evergreen leaves and neat habit. Avoid planting it in poorly drained soils as it could potentially have crown rot problems. It is rhizomatous and can be split to propagate, but it does not take over the beds as many other ferns will. Instead the clump increases in size over time.

So celebrate Christmas with this native fern and by giving a totally delightful children’s book with lovely detailed drawings by Gillian Harris, charming verses by Shane Gibson plus botanical descriptions by Michael Homoya!

Yesterday’s image was of a Christmas fern (Polystichum acrostichoides) frond all rolled up into a little ball by fern...

Posted by Mt. Cuba Center on Wednesday, June 5, 2024

Wednesday, June 5, 2024 post by Mt. Cuba Center on Facebook:

Yesterday’s image was of a Christmas fern (Polystichum acrostichoides) frond all rolled up into a little ball by fern leaftier (Herpetogramma spingealis) caterpillars. This species specializes on Christmas fern as their host plant for food and habitat. The caterpillars create these fern balls using silk and they provide both shelter and food for the larvae. As they grow, the larvae abandon existing shelters and construct larger ones, usually on the same plant. The larvae pupate inside and emerge in 7-12 days as adult moths. If you notice these fascinating structures on your ferns, know that your native plants are supporting wildlife! The fern balls don’t cause lasting damage to the plants, so no management action is needed.

Penstemon

In the 1990s was still commonly seen growing along roads often in ditches inside the city limits before power mowers mowed everything into manicured lawns everywhere.

Native Plant of the Week: Foxglove Beardtongue (Penstemon digitalis) This attractive white, perennial wildflower, also...

Posted by Indiana Native Plant Society on Monday, May 27, 2019

Monday, May 27, 2019 post by the Indiana Native Plant Society on Facebook:

Native Plant of the Week: Foxglove Beardtongue (Penstemon digitalis)

This attractive white, perennial wildflower, also known as Foxglove Penstemon and several other common names, in the Plantain family can be found around the entire state. Foxglove Beardtongue starts as a group of rounded leaves, and the leaves are opposite and more lance-shaped on the stem that subsequently develops. Foxglove Beardtongue has a panicle of white, two-lipped, tubular flowers in late spring/early summer. The flowers have five stamen (4 fertile, 1 sterile), hence the name “Penstemon,” which means five stamen. Bees adore the tubular flowers and can be found stuffed inside of them, collecting pollen and nectar. After flowering, Foxglove Beardtongue develops a capsule of seeds, and the seeds are easily propagated with a short period of cold, moist stratification. Foxglove Beardtongue is very adaptable and can be found in prairies, old fields, roadsides/right-of-ways, woodland edges and open woods. In addition, it makes a wonderful garden plant besides being a prairie restoration species.

Happy Pollinator Week! So many flowers are blooming at Eagle Marsh, and the pollinators are loving it! Come for a visit...

Posted by Little River Wetlands Project on Monday, June 17, 2019

Monday, June 17, 2019 post by Little River Wetlands Project on Facebook:

Happy Pollinator Week! So many flowers are blooming at Eagle Marsh, and the pollinators are loving it! Come for a visit and see the expanse of foxglove beardtongue for yourself, the buzzing can be heard from the Continental Divide trail.

Poison Ivy - Rhus radicans or Toxicodendron radicans

Showy Emerald Moth (Dichorda iridaria). This moth is a larval food specialist on poison ivy and sumac and was at the...

Posted by IN Nature on Sunday, June 9, 2019

Sunday, June 9, 2019 post by IN Nature on Facebook:

Showy Emerald Moth (Dichorda iridaria).

This moth is a larval food specialist on poison ivy and sumac and was at the Indiana Dunes State Park nature center and being pointed out to visitors. One amazed observer asked the question, “what can I do to attract this moth to my yard?

The answer that they were looking for was probably something along the lines of “plant some zinnias and some peonies,“ but instead, they heard the harsh truth.

Our response, “well, the first thing that I would do is to stop killing all of the poison ivy, because that is its primary food source.“

The group that was standing around seemed almost dumbfounded that something as feared and loathed as poison ivy could be a needed ingredient for the lifecycle of something that they deemed to be beautiful.

I went on to explain that we have removed most of the native vegetation from our suburban landscapes, replaced it with vegetation from Europe and Asia, and now we wonder why we don’t have animals like this around anymore.

This is a message that, despite all of our efforts, is still not reaching the masses.

"Leaves of three, let it be!" Yes, Poison Ivy is out and ready to cause many of you misery :-( Purdue Extension's...

Posted by Allen County Master Gardeners on Friday, June 4, 2021

Friday, June 4, 2021 post by the Allen County Master Gardeners on Facebook:

"Leaves of three, let it be!"

Yes, Poison Ivy is out and ready to cause many of you misery 🙁

Purdue Extension's Publication gives tips on identifying the pest, getting rid of it, and how to handle the rash if you encounter it - HO-218-W Poison Ivy Consumer HorticultureConsumer 4-page document with more photos and comparison to similar non-toxic plants.

Pussytoes - Antennaria sp.

  1. Antennaria at Indiana Plant Atlas shows 10 species that may historically be found in Allen County.
  2. Antennaria neglecta at the Missouri Botanical Garden
  3. Field Pussytoes Antennaria neglecta Illinois Wildflowers.
  4. Plantain-Leaved Pussytoes Antennaria plantaginifolia Illinois Wildflowers

Pussytoes (Antennaria sp.) are low, creeping colonizing plants that can be found in a wide range of habitats including...

Posted by Seeing Nature: Observations From New England on Wednesday, June 15, 2016

Wednesday, June 15, 2016 post by Seeing Nature: Observations From New England on Facebook:

Pussytoes (Antennaria sp.) are low, creeping colonizing plants that can be found in a wide range of habitats including fields, roadsides and open woodlands. And lawns that are not treated with herbicides. I carefully mow around the patches of pussytoes in my lawn as they are one of the hostplants for the American lady butterfly (Vanessa virginiensis). Females lay eggs on the leaves and the larvae feed and grow in "nests" made by pulling leaves together with silk.

2024  Pussytoes in the Catholic Cemetery

April 18, 2024 an out-of-focus photo of pussytoes growing in the Catholic Cemetery.

Sedges

Let's move away from mulch, and fill gaps in the landscape with plants that provide habitat and hold the soil. Sedges...

Posted by Healthy Yards on Sunday, May 29, 2022

Sunday, May 29, 2022 post by Healthy Yards on Facebook:

Let's move away from mulch, and fill gaps in the landscape with plants that provide habitat and hold the soil. Sedges are ideal for that, they improve the soil structure, prevent erosion and support wildlife. There is a sedge, or more, suitable for any habitat! Versatile Sedges Lady Birds Johnson Wildflower Center The University of Texas at Austin.

WILD SENNA - Senna (Cassia) hebecarpa

A common prairie plant easily grown in Allen County with deep tap roots.

WILD SENNA Senna hebecarpa at the USDA NRCS National Plant Materials Center, Beltsville, MD. Ethnobotanical: Several senna species are purgatives or laxatives depending on the dose. The leaves and pods of the wild senna contain compounds called anthraquinones, which are powerful laxatives. For this reason cattle and other herbivores avoid grazing the plants. See Senokot Senna glycoside.

Wild Bergamot - Monarda fistulosa - Bee Balm

Native Plant of the Week: Wild Bergamot (Monarda fistulosa) Wild Bergamot is a clump-forming, perennial, native prairie...

Posted by Indiana Native Plant Society on Monday, July 1, 2019

Monday, July 1, 2019 post by the Indiana Native Plant Society on Facebook:

Native Plant of the Week: Wild Bergamot (Monarda fistulosa)

Wild Bergamot is a clump-forming, perennial, native prairie wildflower in the Mint Family that grows 2 ½ to 5 feet tall with a spread of 2 to 3 feet. Wild Bergamot, like other mints, has four angled stems. The leaves of Wild Bergamot are opposite and have a scent like the herb oregano. At the tops of the stems, 1 to 3 inch flowerheads develop that have many 1 inch long, irregular, lavender to pink flowers. Blooming starts in mid-summer beginning with the center flowers first and gradually moving to the outside. The blooming period will last a month or more. The deep root system is strongly branched with shallow rhizomes, which send up multiple stems that give the plant a bushy appearance. Its rhizomes are not bothered by transplanting disturbances, and Wild Bergamot does not spread aggressively via rhizomes (although it will reseed and spread that way). Wild Bergamot prefers full to part sun and will thrive in a wide range of soils, including dry, clay, or rocky, with dry to moderate, well-drained moisture conditions. In the wild, Wild Bergamot is found in prairies, savannas, woodland edges, thickets, and pastures. It is not bothered by mammalian herbivores, and has some susceptibility to powdery mildew and rust, but good air circulation can help. Where Wild Bergamot shines is as a pollinator magnet. The nectar of Wild Bergamot attracts bees, butterflies, skippers, moths, and hummingbirds. Some bees collect the pollen also. Wild Bergamot is the host plant for several moth caterpillars. 

Witch Hazel

Popular folk remedy witch hazel is an effective and natural alternative to conventional antibiotics and spells trouble for harmful microbes. Learn more https://go.usa.gov/xuydF

Posted by USDA Agricultural Research Service on Tuesday, May 3, 2022

Tuesday, May 3, 2022 post by the USDA Agricultural Research Service on Facebook:

Popular folk remedy witch hazel is an effective and natural alternative to conventional antibiotics and spells trouble for harmful microbes. Learn more Witch Hazel Spells Trouble for Harmful Microbes

Did your grandma swear by witch hazel for skin issues? Turns out, it's not just a folk remedy! A recent study reveals...

Posted by USDA Agricultural Research Service on Wednesday, March 20, 2024

Wednesday, March 20, 2024 post by the USDA Agricultural Research Service on Facebook:

Did your grandma swear by witch hazel for skin issues? Turns out, it's not just a folk remedy! A recent study reveals its real benefits for acne and inflammation. Discover more about this natural gem! Witch Hazel, Not Just for Grandma Anymore!

Woodland phlox - Phlox divaricata

With loose clusters of lightly fragrant, lilac, rose, or blue flowers that form atop 12-15” stems each spring, woodland...

Posted by Mt. Cuba Center on Tuesday, May 9, 2023

Tuesday, May 9, 2023 post by Mt. Cuba Center on Facebook:

With loose clusters of lightly fragrant, lilac, rose, or blue flowers that form atop 12-15” stems each spring, woodland phlox (Phlox divaricata) attracts bumblebees and a host of butterflies, especially tiger swallowtails. This herbaceous perennial is among the most reliable and carefree plants; it creates mats over time as leafy shoots spread along the ground, rooting at the nodes. If this is already in your garden, your beds will be ablaze with rich color. Woodland phlox grows best in rich, medium moisture, well drained soil in part to full shade.

Wild blue phlox, also known as woodland phlox, blooms from late spring to early summer in moist deciduous woodlands...

Posted by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on Thursday, May 30, 2024

Thursday, May 30, 2024 post by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on Facebook:

Wild blue phlox, also known as woodland phlox, blooms from late spring to early summer in moist deciduous woodlands across much of the country. Butterflies are the most effective pollinators for this plant!

📷 courtesy of Gordon Garcia

News

It's mowing season! Every year INDOT crews mow hundreds of miles of land. That's a big task! INDOT utilizes a remote controlled mower in order to improve spot mowing and make harder to reach areas safer for our crews.

Posted by Indiana Department of Transportation on Monday, April 22, 2024

Monday, April 22, 2024 post by the Indiana Department of Transportation on Facebook:

It's mowing season!

Every year INDOT crews mow hundreds of miles of land. That's a big task!

INDOT utilizes a remote controlled mower in order to improve spot mowing and make harder to reach areas safer for our crews.

Saturday, April 27, 2024 post by Leaf of Life on Facebook:

America's First Urban Agrihood Free Food from Neighborhood Gardens

How 3 acres feeds 2000 homes, in America's first agrihood! Jul 11, 2022 Leaf of Lifeon YouTube.
#greencity Detroit the largest city in Michigan and has suffered a long period of economic decline with tens of thousands of abandoned buildings and empty commercial lots. It is also considered one of the unhealthiest cities in America due to food insecurity and the inability to find affordable nutritious foods. Since 2020 ten full-service grocery stores have shut down. This means for many inhabitants there is no access to fresh food.
A 2017 report from the Detroit Food Policy Council stated that 30,000 people don’t have access to a full-line grocer. As a result Detroit has been described as a food desert. The U.S Department of Agriculture considers a food desert an urban area with no ready access to a store selling fresh and nutritious produce within one mile. Food deserts have been a growing problem and it’s estimated there are more than 23.5 million Americans living in food deserts with more than half of them on low-incomes and living in impoverished areas, these households may not have access to a car and with limited or no fresh grocery store near to their home they are unable to access healthy and nutritious food which has a lifelong impact on health.
However Detroit is starting turn this around by transforming abandoned spaces into urban farms providing free organic food to local communities. This can be considered a major accomplishment for any city especially Detroit where more than 550,000 residents live in areas defined as food deserts. In this video we will show you how the heart of Detroit city is turning into a farmland oasis.

NIPSCO is dedicated to protecting pollinators like bees and butterflies across the hundreds of miles of Rights of Way we...

Posted by NIPSCO on Monday, June 17, 2024

Monday, June 17, 2024 post by NIPSCO on Facebook:

NIPSCO is dedicated to protecting pollinators like bees and butterflies across the hundreds of miles of Rights of Way we service across northern #Indiana. Our land management practices promote safe habitats for these vital creatures through conservation mowing, targeted species control and native plant reintroduction.

Pollinators are essential to our environment because they:

- Pollinate 75% to 95% of flowering plants

- Are responsible for 1 out of every 3 bites of food we eat

- Support healthy ecosystems that clean the air and stabilize soils, protecting them from severe weather

- Promote biodiversity

At our #MerrillvilleIndiana headquarters, we’ve developed a pollinator habitat around our solar panels. We’ve also forged partnerships with community organizations for pollinator habitat restoration efforts and the planting of thousands of trees in northern Indiana.

We’re proud to support wildlife and pollinator species.

To learn more about our dedication to the environment, visit NIPSCO.com/Environment.

📍 NIPSCO Merrillville Headquarters

#PollinatorWeek #PowerInPollinators #PollinatorPowerParty

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