1811 - 1812 - 1813 - 1814 - 1815 - 1816 - 1817 - 1818 - 1819
Indiana population was 24,520 from page 3 1851 Indiana Constitution History.
1810 - Little Turtle dies in Fort Wayne. William Wells, his son-in-law, is killed while escorting a group of women and children to safety from Fort Dearborn. From Millennium milestones in Fort Wayne from the archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper.
1810, August 20 - Shawnee military and political leader Tecumseh addressed Territorial Governor William Henry Harrison in Vincennes. Through this address, Tecumseh hoped to persuade Harrison to both relinquish American claim to land acquired in the Treaty of Fort Wayne and to dissuade him from further encroachment upon Native people’s land, saying “If you will not give up the land and do cross the boundary of your present settlement it will be very hard and produce great troubles among us.” Tecumseh had travelled to Vincennes from Prophetstown, just north of present day Lafayette, with an escort of seventy-five warriors. The Treaty of Fort Wayne, signed in 1809, exasperated tensions between Prophetstown and the territorial government as Prophetstown leadership had not been informed of the proceedings. According to historian Adam Jortner, the August 1810 summit “did not produce any changes in relations, but it did produce some of the most eloquent explanations and defenses of the Prophetstown position on land ownership.” Posted August 20, 2018 by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook. Learn more about Tecumseh by the National Park Service.
1810, December 17 - 19 Acts establish a permanent seat of government for Indiana Territory
1811, January 7 - Indiana Territory General Assembly petitions United States Congress for a donation of land for a capital.
1811, November 7 - The Battle of Tippecanoe is waged with forces under William Henry Harrison and Native Americans led by the Prophet.
1811, December 11 - Territorial Assembly petitions Congress to admit Indiana as the 19th state into the Union. See page 6 of The Indiana Historian March 1996. See January 21, 2016 Indiana Bicentennial Commission on Facebook.post with video on the 20 star bicentennial flag.
1811, December 16 - New Madrid earthquake magnitude 7.5 and 1812, January 23 - New Madrid earthquake magnitude 7.3. Summary of 1811-1812 New Madrid Earthquakes Sequence at USGS.gov. See map and discussion January 23, 2017 on U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Facebook and damage map posted December 16, 2017 by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook.
1812 a woodcut drawing of a wooden bridge across the Maumee River below the confluence of the St. Mary's and St. Joseph rivers in the present Lakeside area then known as "the old apple orchard." Published in 1909 as Bloomingdale Bridge posted July 6, 2017 onthe original Great Memories and History of Fort Wayne, Indiana page on Facebook.
1812, March 1 -a
letter from William Wells to Sec. of War Eustis.
Fort Wayne The 1 March 1812
In my letter of the 10th ultimo, I inform you that the Indian chief Tecumseh had arrived on the Wabash. I have no to state to you that - - that he has determined to raise all the Indians he can immediately with an intention no doubt to attack our frontiers. He has sent runners to raise the Indians on the Illinois and the upper part of the Mississippi and I am to take his guns himself to Murry and the aid he was promised by the Cherokees and the Creeks.
The Prophet’s orator who is considered the third man in this hostile band passed within 12 mile of this place on the 23 ulto with 8 shawnese 8 winnebagoes and 7 kickapoos in all 24 on their way as they say to ---- ----- where they expected to receive a quantity of powder and lead from their Father the British !
It is believed that they have been told by the messengers from Malden that passed this place in January that ammunition would be sent to that place for them—it is evident that these fellows are determined to make a Bold Stand. But I cannot believe that any number of Indians will be such –as to join then unless we are at war with the British. They will keep up…. People in a clear state of illusion as long as the Prophet is sufficed to live. I do not believe none that the Indians will hurt him and the government had better send 150 to 200 mounted Riflemen and put an end to him.
These men should be raised as secretly as possible and they should Dash at him instantly. Should upon an act be adopted at this theme by the government I would be glad to have charge of its Execution.
I have the Honor to be seen
Respectfully your most obt servant,
William Wells Copied from a March 21, 2019 post on the Society of the War of 1812 in the State of Indiana on Facebook by
Richard Allen Ferguson who received a photocopy of the letter. The first two paragraphs are an [Extract] on page 806 of American State Papers: Documents, Legislative and Executive, of the Congress of the United States and page 27 of Messages and letters of William Henry Harrison 1922 publication both on Internet Archive.
1812, March 31 - Congressional commitee recomends admission when the population of Indiana Territory is 35,000. See page 6 of The Indiana Historian March 1996.
1812, April 30 - Louisiana became the 18th nation's state.
1812: During the War of 1812, the loss of Fort Dearborn in a fierce battle and the fall of Fort Detroit to the British leave Fort Wayne vulnerable to attack by the British and their Native American allies. Fort Wayne is besieged by Indian forces until rescued by the American army under Brig. General William Henry Harrison.
1812, May 10 - the United States calls out militia forces to prepare for war against Canada. War will be declared on June 18. Copied from a May 10, 2019 post by Forces of Lord Selkirk on Facebook.
1812, June 18 - President James Madison signed a declaration of war against Britain. Indiana Territorial Governor William Henry Harrison left office to help lead soldiers in the 32-month conflict between the U.S. and Great Britain and its Indian allies. Read IHB: Indiana Territorial Governor WIlliam Henry Harrison (1773 - 1841) on IN.gov. Two years later, British troops set the Capitol building and White House ablaze. See a photo of a charred piece of timber from the White House on National Museum of American History on Facebook. See The War of 1812 on Today in History - June 18 at The Library of Congress. Samuel Lewis's 1812 map "A correct map of the seat of war." on Accessible Archives on Facebook.
1812, July 14 - Chief Little Turtle, a leader of the Miami people, died near present-day Fort Wayne, Indiana. Read more On This Day posted July 14, 2015 by Indiana Bicentennial Commission on Facebook.on Facebook.
1812 September 5 – September 12 - Siege of Fort Wayne on Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. War of 1812's Siege of Fort Wayne comes to life in re-enactments this weekend at Old Fort This is the 200th anniversary of the battle that helped shape the city's future was by Kevin Kilbane published September 3, 2012 in The News-Sentinel newspaper. See September 5, 2015 post by Johnston Farm & Indian Agency on Facebook.
1812, September - the great Squirrel Stampede! See 1819 Squirrels and Hamilton County goes nuts for squirrels by Amy Lynch on Sep. 19, 2022 on VisitIndiana.com.
1812, December 28 - William Henry Harrison resigns as Governor of the Indiana Territory in order to join in the War of 1812. Read more INDIANA TERRITORIAL GOVERNOR WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON (1773 - 1841) on IN.gov. See December 28, 2018 post by the Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook.
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1813, March 3 - Thomas Posey becomes second governor of Indiana Territory. Harrison resigned to pursue a military commission.
1813, March 11 - State Capital Act of 1813 moves the seat of government from Vincennes to Corydon when Indiana only had 10 counties.
1813, May 1 - the capital of the Indiana Territory was moved from Vincennes, Indiana to Corydon, sitting just north of the Ohio River, remaining the state's capital until 1825 when Indianapolis took over that role. See photo posted May 1, 2017 on Indiana Bicentennial Commission on Facebook.on Facebook.
1813, September 7 - 1813 United States nicknamed Uncle Sam on This Day in History on History.com.
1813, October 5 - during the War of 1812, Shawnee Indian chief Tecumseh is killed near Canada's Thames River.
1814 burning of the U.S. capital, by the British during the War of 1812, pushed Congress to publish the most important records of our government resulting in millions of volumes in reports, journals, digest, codes, and miscellaneous documents of many Americans in libraries across the country in the Federal Depository Library Directory (FDLD).
1814 - Colonel John Allen, a Kentuckian who fought in defense of Fort Wayne and the Maumee River area after the siege, is killed during the battle of the River Raisin near today's Monroe, Michigan. Allen County would later be named in his memory. From Millennium milestones in Fort Wayne from the archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper.
1814, August 24 - the British marched into Washington, D. C. and set fire to the Capitol building and White House during the War of 1812.
Indiana Historical Bureau image
1814, August 29 -
the Indiana Territorial Legislature adopted a resolution requiring a census of the "free inhabitants" of the territory, which excluded Native Americans and enslaved African Americans. In 1812, the U.S. Congress recommended that the territory's population be at least 35,000 as a qualification for statehood. The census, completed in 1815, enumerated the population of Indiana at 63,897. Copied August 29, 2017 post with census image from The Lilly Library, Indiana University posted by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook. Learn more about Indiana's road to Indiana Statehood on IN.gov.
1814, September 13 - during the War of 1812 while bombs and rockets were being fired upon Baltimore's Fort McHenry for 25 hours, it inspired Francis Scott Key to write the Star-Spangled Banner our National Anthem. Read The Lyrics, You asked, we answered: Why is there a question mark at the end of the National Anthem? and Francis Scott Key on theSmithsonian National Museum of American History blog.
1814, August 29 -
On August 29, 1814, the Indiana Territorial Legislature adopted a resolution requiring a census of the "free inhabitants" of the territory, which excluded Native Americans and enslaved African Americans. In 1812, the U.S. Congress recommended that the territory's population be at least 35,000 as a qualification for statehood. The census, completed in 1815, enumerated the population of Indiana at 63,897, leading to Indiana’s statehood in 1816. Learn about the search for a new state capital after statehood here in the March 1996 The Indiana Historian magazine. Copied from the August 29, 2020 post by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook.
1814, September 13-14 - Francis Scott Key wrote our national anthem by the rockets' red glare. In 1914, the same Star-Spangled Banner was repaired under a squid's steely stare. See photo Repair Work on Star-Spangled Banner of women repairing the flag on September 14, 2022 post by Smithsonian Libraries and Archives on Facebook. Learn more at Today in History - September 13 The Star-Spangled Banner at The Library of Congress.
1814, December 24 - The War of 1812 ends with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent.
1815, December 11 - Territorial Assembly again petitions Congress to admit Indiana into the Union. See page 6 of The Indiana Historian March 1996
1815, April - In April 1815, a volcano known as Mount Tambora erupted in a massive explosion on the island of Sumbawa in present-day Indonesia. The eruption was the largest volcanic eruption in recorded history. It obliterated the top of the mountain and produced tsunamis, pyroclastic flows, and ash killing at least 10,000 islanders. The explosion propelled ash, pumice, and sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere and impacted global temperatures. As a result, the year 1816 was known as the Year Without a Summer. Copied from The 1815 Eruption of Mount Tambora and the Year Without a Summer posted July 1, 2022 by Jenny Ashcraft on Newspapers.com
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1816 - is still known to scientists and historians as
eighteen hundred and froze to death or the
year without a summer
From his Monticello home in Virginia, Thomas Jefferson recorded the severe weather of 1816 in his weather diary. There is an image of the diary shown on A weak solar maximum, a major volcanic eruption, and possibly even the wobbling of the Sun conspired to make the summer of 1816 one of the most miserable ever recorded. New Hampshire diarist Adino Brackett in his final entry for the infamous cold year of 1816 — aka “the year there was no summer”: "This past summer and fall have been so cold and miserable that I have from despair kept no account of the weather. It could have been nothing but a repeatation [sic] of frost and drought." From The Weather Doctor Weather Almanac for June 2009 WEATHER DIARIES AND JOURNALS. See also Wikipedia Year Without A Summer and Weather of 1816 -- a year to remember March 8, 2011 by Don Cosby Washington Times-Herald.
1816, April 19 - President James Madison signs the Enabling Act allowing for the Indiana Constitutional Convention to form a government and join the Union. See THE ENABLING ACT, 1816 on IN.gov, April 19, 2016 post on Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebookand page 6 of The Indiana Historian March 1996.
1816, April 29 Indiana becomes the 19th state. All of northern Indiana is included in Knox County, with Vincennes as the county seat. Talk immediately begins about building the Wabash-Erie Canal through Fort Wayne. The state constitution forbids slavery, but slavery continues until the Civil War.
Indiana Historical Society photo
1816, June 10 -
the first state constitutional convention assembled at Corydon. Forty-three delegates, representing the thirteen counties then in existence, gathered to write the state’s governing document borrowing some concepts from those established in other states. Indiana became a state on December 11, 1816. The collections at IHS have one of the two handwritten copies of the state's first constitution. Copied from a June 10, 2022 post by the Indiana Historical Society on Facebook. Constitution of 1816 and Full text of the 1816 Constitution at IN.gov. There were 43 delegates from 15 counties. Read more about Indiana Statehood and The Setting for the Convention on IN.gov/history. See Members of Indiana's 1816 Constitutional Convention and photo of old Indiana Capitol Building on Indiana Albums on Facebook. See digital image of Indiana State Constitution, 1816 at IndianaHistory.com. Indiana Constitution, 1816
About this collection The Indiana Constitution of 1816 was written in Corydon at the Constitutional Convention. This marked the end of the Indiana Territory and the beginning of the statehood of Indiana. This copy of the Indiana Constitution of 1816 is one of two copies written. At We Do History online digital collection by the Indiana Historical Society.
1816, June 29 - delegates at the constitutional convention in Corydon adopted the first Indiana State Constitution. See photo posted June 29, 2018 by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook.
1816, August 5 - elections held under new constitution; Jonathan Jennings became first state governor in first state and county elections. See page 6 of The Indiana Historian March 1996 or Jonathan Jennings: Honoring the Autonomy and Democratic Values of Pioneer Hoosiers by S. Chandler Lighty posted on July 26, 2017 on Indiana History Blog by the Indiana Historical Bureau.
1816, November 4 - the first Indiana General Assembly convened in Corydon, Indiana. Read The Indiana General Assembly, A History: Part One (1815-1825) on IGAhistory.org blog.
1816, December 11 - President James Madison signed an act of Congress admitting Indiana to the Union as the 19th state of the United States.
Indiana was the second state, after Ohio, to be created out of what was the Northwest Territory. From December 11, 2014 post by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook. Their December 11, 2018 post includes an imagine of an early map.
- Indiana Statehood 16-page article in The Indiana Historian magazine September 1999 issue by the Indiana Historical Bureau.
- See Search for a new capital on page 6 of The Indiana Historian March 1996. Corydon in Harrison County was the state capital since 1813 seat of government. Mountain lions still roamed the state, elk grazed the prairies and bison still roamed the western edges of Indiana. The state population was 65,000, about equal modern Terre Haute with the capital in Corydon moved from Vincennes in 1813 from Celebrating Indiana's rich history by Lee Hamilton and Becky Skillman published September 13, 2015 on the BrazilTimes.com.
- Indiana at 200 (20): Indiana Becomes 16th State by Andrea Neal published March 10, 2014
- Indiana at 200 (22): Slavery Existed in ‘Free’ Indiana by Andrea Neal published April 7, 2014.
- Among framers of 1816 constitution who met under the Constitution Elm was John Boone of Harrison County, Daniel Boone’s brother from Indiana at 200 (19): Framers Met Under an Elmby Andrea Neal published February 24, 2014.
late 1816, just as Indiana became a state, when Thomas and Nancy Lincoln moved with their son and daughter from Kentucky to Spencer County, which was still a forested wildernessfrom Indiana at 200 (18): Years Here Shaped Abe Lincoln by Andrea Neal published February 10, 2014 all on Indiana Policy.org.
- Indiana had
black lawswith prohibitions against blacks testifying in court against whites, marrying whites, voting, serving in the militia and even migrating into the state, read more in How Hoosier roots helped shape Lincoln published November 26, 2016 in The Journal Gazette newspaper.
- The Indiana General Assembly (1815-1825): Statehood, Slavery, and Constitution-Drafting by Justin Clark posted on August 23, 2017 on Indiana Historical Bureau.
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1817, May 5 -
the Indiana Supreme Court held its first session in Corydon, Indiana. The three judges were appointed by Governor Jennings to serve seven-year terms. See photos and more on May 5, 2016 Facebook post by
Indiana Bicentennial Commission on Facebook..
1818, January 28 - the Indiana General Assembly passed an "Act to license and regulate taverns," requiring anyone operating a tavern to obtain a license from the county commissioners and pay a $500 bond. They were also required to submit twelve certificates from “respectable house-holders” which attested to their “good moral character.” Posted January 28, 2018 by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook.
1818, April 4 - Congress decided the U.S. flag would consist of 13 red and white stripes and 20 stars, with a new star to be added for every new state.
1818, May 10 - Paul Revere, American patriot and midnight rider dies in Boston.
1818, October 2-6 - United States Treaty Commissioners Jonathan Jennings, Lewis Cass, and Benjamin Parke met in St. Mary's Ohio with leaders of Delaware and Miami tribes located in Indiana. Treaties brought the middle third of the state called the
New Purchase under United States ownership. Most settlements at statehood were located in the southern part of the state. See page 6 of The Indiana Historian March 1996.
1818, October 5 - Nancy Hanks Lincoln, mother of 9 year old future president Abraham Lincoln, died of milk sickness. Milk sickness was a common illness caused from consuming milk and meat from cows feeding on white snakeroot, Ageratina altissima, a shade loving plant found throughout Indiana with white flowers that bloom in late summer and early fall.
- The Lincoln Collection at the Allen County Public Libraryon Facebook posted about milk sickness at least twice with tomsbstone photos October 7, 2014 and Nancy Hanks Lincoln image October 6, 2020.
- The curse of Milk Sickness, part 1 of 2 on February 18, 2019 and The curse of Milk Sickness, part 2 of 2 on February 19, 2019 both posted by Dave Tabler in Epidemics & Pandemics / Folk medicine at Appachian History.net.
- An October 4, 2014 post on Indiana Native Plant Society (INPS) on Facebook discussed seeing evidence that deer also eat white snakeroot.
- September 2, 2022 is a lengthy post with photo on IN Nature on Facebook.
- Plant Chats with Val- White Snakeroot is the video at the National Park Service shown below.
- Discoverer of the Cause of Milk Sickness William D. Snively Jr., MD; Louanna Furbee, June 20, 1966, on the JAMA Network.
- VIII.90 - Milk Sickness (Tremetol Poisoning) from Part VIII - Major Human Diseases Past and Present published online by Cambridge University Press: 28 March 2008 by Thomas Cone Jr., Edited by Kenneth F. Kiple.
- Toxicity of white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) and chemical extracts of white snakeroot in goats at National Library of Medicine NIH.gov.
- White snakeroot: a toxic plant to horses at University of Minnesota Extension.
- White Snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) Picture of the Week November 30, 2020 by Marcelo Zimmer, Weed Science Program Specialist, Plant & Pest Diagnostic Lab, Purdue University.
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1819: Fort Wayne is abandoned as an army post, becomes part of Randolph County. The county seat is Winchester. From Millennium milestones in Fort Wayne from the archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper.
1819 - Acquisition of Florida - 2nd of three big land grabs by the young United States, following the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and before the 1867 Purchase of Alaska. See Acquisition of Florida: Treaty of Adams-Onis (1819) and Transcontinental Treaty (1821) on U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian.
1819, 1823, and 1834 - an invasion of squirrels destroying Indiana pioneer corn crops from Along the Heritage Trail The Squirrel Invasion This tale may actually be true by Tom Castaldi, local historian published July 23, 2013 on Fort Wayne Monthly.
"Three times during the first half of the 19th century, crops were destroyed by these bushy-tailed varmints," Allen County historian Tom Castaldi wrote in a column for Fort Wayne Monthly magazine. Tom, one of our state's most popular county historians and an expert on canals, Italian immigration and other aspects of our heritage, will join Nelson in studio as we explore the squirrel invasions. In his column, Tom noted that early Indianapolis civic leader, attorney and landowner Calvin Fletcher described the massive number of squirrels in the 1820s - and wrote about the devastation they wrought - in his diaries. Copied from Squirrel invasion of 1800s and other quirky episodes posted Jan. 4, 2014 on Archives of Hoosier History Live podcast on Saturdays, noon to 1 p.m. ET on WICR 88.7 FM. Squirrel on We Do History blog at Indiana Historical Society.City’s very earliest residents faced a unique challenge by Connie Zeigler posted November 2008 in Urban Times Archives. Squirrels know when it's time to move by the Editorial Board published March 26, 2022 in The Journal Gazette newspaper mentions the Great Squirrel Stampede of 1822 which decimated Hamilton County cornfields like a locust swarm, the last event in 1985. “There were thousands, millions in some of them,” Historian David Heighway told the IndyStar for the Hamilton County Bicentennial event. The article stated:
Squirrel migrations across the upper Midwest, New England and the Carolinas were observed in 1809, 1819, 1842, 1852 and 1856, reported freelance writer Wayne Capooth for Farm Progress magazine in 2006. In southeastern Wisconsin, a gray squirrel migration in 1842 lasted four weeks, was 130 miles wide and 150 miles long, and involved nearly a half-billion squirrels. One of the earliest referenced migrations occurred in 1749 in Pennsylvania. Records show the state spending 3 cents for each squirrel killed. Capooth learned that 640,000 were turned in for bounty. Call it nutty but Hamilton County will celebrate the Great Squirrel Stampede by John Tuohy published March 23, 2022 in the Indianapolis Star. The Great Squirrel Stampede by David Heighway, Hamilton County Historian on the Hamilton East Public Library website. There is even a Squirrel Stampede English Nut Brown Ale posted July 14, 2018 by Grand Junction Brewing Co. on their Facebook page. Indianapolis Squirrel Wars updated: Feb 25, 2019 on class900indy.com.
To feed or not feed the squirrels? We discuss The Great squirrel Stampede and how it almost destroyed all of Hamilton County's food supply.
1819, November 24
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