1700 - 1770 - 1773 - 1774 - 1775 - 1776 - 1777 - 1778 - 1779
Millennium milestones in Fort Wayne in the archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper has the following information:
1000: The Woodland Era. Native Americans live in small villages, garden, hunt with the bow and arrow, fish and gather wild berries and nuts for food.
1050: The Mississippian Era. Native Americans live in mound-building cultures, an example of which flourished at Angel Mounds near Evansville, and at Cahokia near present-day St. Louis on the Mississippi. Local Woodland Indians adopt some of the Mississippian ways, but maintain their own culture.
1215: Following a revolt by the English nobility against his rule, King John put his royal seal on Magna Carta, or “the Great Charter,” on #ThisDayInHistory in 1215.
The document, essentially a peace treaty between John and his barons, guaranteed that the king would respect feudal rights and privileges, uphold the freedom of the church, and maintain the nation’s laws. Although more a reactionary than a progressive document in its day, the Magna Carta was seen as a cornerstone in the development of democratic England by later generations. How Did Magna Carta Influence the U.S. Constitution? The 13th-century pact inspired the U.S. Founding Fathers as they wrote the documents that would shape the nation. by Dave Roosep posted September 30, 2019 on History.com. Copied from a June 15, 2022 post by History.com on Facebook.
Christopher Columbus' 1492 voyage is what he is best known for, but he led more expeditions to the Caribbean, as well. After his third, he was charged with maladministration of Hispaniola. He was brought back to Spain in disgrace, and in chains, in 1500. When he pleaded his case before Queen Isabella and King Fernando of Spain, they promised restitution of the rights and offices that Columbus had negotiated with them ahead of his first expedition. But months passed without redress. This is where the "Book of Privileges" comes in. To try to prevent his promised positions and entitlements from being questioned, Columbus gathered all the documentation of his agreements with the Spanish monarchs from years earlier and hired scribes to make copies. The Library has one of these copies of the "Book of Privileges." Unique to the Library's copy is a transcription of Pope Alexander VI's 1493 letter to the Spanish monarchy (pictured), granting papal authority to claim all lands unruled by "Christian powers." The document lays out the deadly course of colonialism that would be inflicted on the Americas. Columbus died in Spain in 1506, having never abandoned the belief that he had found a previously unexplored part of Asia. "America" comes from the name of another Italian explorer, Amerigo Vespucci, who asserted the lands Columbus had sailed to were part of a separate continent. Copied from an October 10, 2022 post by The Library of Congress on Facebook.
Resources if you want to learn more about Columbus:
"Book of Privileges" & Vespucci: "1492: An Ongoing Voyage" Christopher Columbus: Man and Myth exhibit - http://go.loc.gov/mqNL50L6emU
"Book of Privileges" webcast - http://go.loc.gov/rKEJ50L6emV
"How Did America Get Its Name?" blog - http://go.loc.gov/gK2U50L6emW
Important observation: America is named after an Italian, Amerigo Vespucci, who did not speak English
1600s: Europeans bring diseases that kill an estimated 80 percent of Native Americans throughout New England and many in this area. From Millennium milestones in Fort Wayne in the archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper.
1644 - the second paragraph of a June 13, 1923 Historical Societies newspaper article states:
White settlers were in these parts as early as 1644, when Samuel De Champlain, governor of new France, (Canada) and founder of Quebec, is believed to have seen the Maumee. Certain it is that Champlain's map of 1632 indicates the Maumee, the St. Mary's and the St. Joseph's rivers. Clipped from The Fort Wayne Sentinel 13 Jun 1923, Wednesday, page 4. Clipped by StanFollisFW on 20 Feb 2022. A zoomable Champlain's map of New France 1632 is at Trove
a collaboration between the National Library of Australia and hundreds of Partner organisations around Australia. Champlain's map of New France 1632 is another zoomable map at The New York Public Library Digital Collections
a living database with new materials added every day, featuring prints, photographs, maps, manuscripts, streaming video, and more.
1648-49: The Iroquois nearly annihilate the Huron Indians, who have already been decimated by disease, as the two groups fight over fur supplies and trade relations with the French. Both tribes had pushed the Miamis out of northeastern Indiana. From Millennium milestones in Fort Wayne in the archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper.
A Massachusetts law enacted in 1659 read: "Whosoever shall be found observing any such day as Christmas, or the like, either by forebearing of labor, feasting in any other way, shall be fined 5 shillings, and forbade the Festival of Christmas and kindred ones, superstitiously kept." The law was only in effect for 22 years, but Christmas was not made a legal holiday in Massachusetts until the mid-19th-century. Copied from a December 28, 2010 post by Colonial Williamsburg on Facebook. Christmas A Crime at Celebrate Boston.
1719, May 12 - a French inventory and orders for Francois Roye to go to the Miamis and trade was signed by Vincennes. Another document is a voyageur contract from August 17, 1720 to travel by canoe to go down and trade for furs among the Miamis. The documents were to be deposited with the judge at Montreal, Canada. July 14, 2018 The History Center posted photos of maps and documents on Facebook for July 14 Bastille Day in France.
1720, August 17 - a French document to travel by canoe to go down and trade for furs among the Miamis. The documents were to be deposited with the judge at Montreal, Canada. A July 14, 2018post by The History Centerphotos of maps and documents on Facebook for July 14 Bastille Day in France.#sociallyhistory
Indiana Historical Society image
1721 - Fabureau Fur Trading Contract -
One of the earliest manuscripts in the library, this contract calls for trader Charles Fabereau to deliver supplies to Sieur Dumont, a French officer commanding the Miamis post (now Fort Wayne), and return to Montreal with Dumont's fur pelts to sell at a profit. The North American fur trade fulfilled Europe's thirst for beaver-felt hats and explorers quest for fame and fortune. French traders exchanged blankets, weapons, and gunpowder with Native Americans for furs and skins. Treasures from the Indiana Historical Society. Shared February 2, 2023 on True Fort Wayne Indiana History on Facebook.
1747: Little Turtle is born to Turtle, a Miami war chief, and his Mohican wife at a site in Whitley County called Devil's Lake.
1752, September 14 - Britain and the American colonies adopted the Gregorian calendar.
September 3, 2023 post by A Daily Dose of History on Facebook:
In 1752 Great Britain transitioned from the Julian Calendar to the Gregorian calendar. Because there was an eleven-day difference in the two calendars, it was necessary for the British to skip eleven days in order to “catch up.” So, by act of Parliament, in Great Britain and the British colonies, in 1752 the day after September 2 was September 14, not September 3. The change is said to have caused widescale rioting across England, as people demanded the return of the eleven “stolen” days. How did this all come about?
For 600 years, in England the first day of the new year was not January 1, but rather March 25, which was popularly known as “Lady Day.” Officially the “Feast of the Annunciation,” Lady Day celebrated the angel Gabriel’s announcement to the Virgin Mary that she was to give birth to the Messiah. Even as the rest of the Western World celebrated New Year’s Day on the first day of January, England stubbornly held on the practice of beginning the new year on Lady Day, in part because it coincided neatly with the beginning of an agricultural year.
But in 1750 England finally succumbed to the pressure to conform to the practice of the rest of the world and made January 1 the first day of the year (Scotland having done so 150 years earlier), replacing the Julian Calendar with the Gregorian Calendar at the same time. In England the year 1751 began, as usual, on March 25, but ended on December 31, making the English year of 1751 only 282 days long.
The transition to the “New Style” calendar required that another inconsistency be resolved as well. The old Julian Calendar, which had been implemented in 46 B.C., had a built-in error, caused by miscalculating the solar year by 11 minutes. The error caused the calendar to “lose” a day every 128 years. The Gregorian Calendar had solved the problem by making the last leap year of a century a leap year only it was evenly divisible by 400. Over the passing centuries, therefore, the Gregorian calendar gradually gained days on the Julian calendar, so that by the time Great Britain got on board, the date there was 11 days earlier than the date in the rest of the West (i.e., January 1 in England was January 12 elsewhere). It was this misalignment that was solved by the elimination of the eleven days in September. The dates September 3-13, 1752 simply never occurred in Great Britain and the British colonies.
Although it has long been claimed that when the change occurred there were riots across Britain, demanding the return of the eleven “stolen” days, most historians now believe the “calendar riots” are a myth. But there was non-riotous resistance to the change. For example, many British people complained about and were suspicious of the change in dates of religious holidays, so that many continued to celebrate Christmas on the traditional day, which under the new calendar fell on January 6 rather than December 25. And some did fear that the law had shortened their lives by eleven days. There are also consequences when dating things that occurred during the period of change. When George Washington was born, for example, the date of his birth was February 11, 1731. But by sliding the calendar forward 11 days and changing New Year’s Day, his birthday under the New Style Calendar Act became February 22, 1732, the date we currently recognize. Anyone researching dates during this period will see them often referred to as “1731/32,” for example.
The image is William Hogarth’s 1755 painting “An Election Entertainment,” depicting English Whigs partying on election day, while Tories protest outside. On the floor is a stolen Tory banner which reads “Give us our Eleven Days.” This painting, intended to poke fun at election shenanigans, is believed to be one of the primary source of the “Calendar Riots” myth.
Two hundred seventy-one years ago in Great Britain and her colonies, what would normally have been September 3 was September 14 instead.
1754-1763: The Miamis align with the French in the French and Indian War, known in Europe as the Seven Years' War.
1763, February 10 -
February 10, 2023 post by the Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook:
ON THIS DAY // On February 10, 1763, the Seven Years’ War, also known as the French and Indian War, concluded with the signing of the Treaty of Paris by France, Great Britain, and Spain. Check out the map below to see how the area now known as Indiana changed territories as a result of the war.
Learn more about the war via the Library of Congress web guide:French and Indian War: A Resource Guide
1768, December 6 - The 1st volume of the Encyclopedia Britannica was published. The final print version (15th Edition) was published in 2010. Digital content & distribution has continued since then. Copied from a December 6, 2018 Tweet by The Library of Congress.
1776: The American Revolutionary War against Britain begins, with the Miami allied with the British.
1770, March 5 - The Boston Massacre occurs. British soldiers fire into a snow-ball throwing crowd, killing five colonists.
1773, March 11 - Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, and others met in a small room in the Raleigh Tavern and planned the creation of committees of correspondence to connect the colonies in their fight against Britain. For more see Williamsburg and the Intercolonial Committees of Correspondence at The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.
1773, December 16 - Colonial opposition to British taxes leads to the Boston Tea Party
1774, September 26 - John Chapman was born in Massachusetts. He became known as "Johnny Appleseed" and established orchards throughout the Midwest. He died in Fort Wayne, Indiana in March 1845.
1775, March 10 - the beginning of the Wilderness Road through the Cumberland Gap, also called the Cumberland Road. It was one of two principal routes used by colonial and early national era settlers to reach Kentucky from the East. The other was northern National Road started in the early 19th century. From May 10, 2017 The Genealogy Center Tweet.
1775, March 23 - in Virginia, a meeting of the colony’s delegates was held in St. John’s Church in Richmond where Patrick Henry recited those famous words:
Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death! Read Patrick Henry’s “Liberty or Death” Speech by Evan Andrews published March 22, 2015 on History.com.
1775, April 18 - The Real Story of Revere's Ride at PaulRevereHouse.org.
1775, April 19 -
shot heard 'round the world - first military engagements of the American Revolution begins with the battles of Lexington and Concord. “Yankee doodle keep it up, Yankee doodle dandy...” According to the Library of Congress, tradition holds that the Colonials began to sing the tune
Yankee Doodle as they forced the British back to Boston. Read more at Lexington and Concord on the Library of Congress American Memory Today In History blog.
September 13, 2023 post by A Daily Dose of the American Rev on Facebook:
In 18th century English culture a “dandy” was a man obsessed with gaudy fashion. A “macaroni” was a particularly outrageous dandy, one who favored ridiculous effeminate fashion, such as tall beehive-style powdered and perfumed wigs.
So when English soldiers began referring to the Colonial rebels as “Yankee doodle dandies” who stuck feathers in their hats and called them “macaronis,” their intent to was to deliver a stinging insult—basically they were calling the Americans rubes and sissies.
As has happened often in history, the intended insult was appropriated and embraced by those to whom it was directed. Nowadays “Yankee Doodle” is considered one of America’s defining patriotic songs.
Archibald Willard's famous painting “The Spirit of '76,” was originally called “Yankee Doodle.”
1775, May 10 - representatives from the Thirteen Colonies gathered for the Second Continental Congress
May 10, 2023 post by Fold3 on Facebook:
On May 10, 1775, representatives from the Thirteen Colonies gathered for the Second Continental Congress. The meetings eventually resulted in the Declaration of Independence. Explore our free collection of Continental Congress Papers on Fold3: http://fnote.it/6xw0
1775, June 14 - the United States Army is founded, read Army celebrates 238th birthday in Pentagon ceremonyJune 13, 2013 by Alex Dixon on army.mil.
1775, June 15 - George Washington is appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army. See his camp chest or George Washington’s Uniform both on Smithsonian National Museum of American History blog.
1775, June 16 - Battle of Bunker Hill between British and American forces takes place near Boston, Massachusetts.
1775, July 26 - U.S. Post Office is established by the Second Continental Congress. Benjamin Franklin was the first postmaster general. Read 1775 U.S. postal system established on This Day in History on History.com. Read some history on the July 26, 2014 Writer's Almanac post on the The History CenterFacebook page. For postmaster information read Special Delivery: Postmasters in the Family Tree by Amy Johnson Crow published July 26, 2014 on the Ancestry.com blog. The U.S., Appointments of U. S. Postmasters, 1832-1971 records are on Ancestry.com. A Brief History of the United States Postal Service To forge a nation, the founders needed an efficient communications network by Winifred Gallagher posted October 2020 on Smithsonian Magazine.
1775, October 13 - the Continental Navy, first established by a resolution of the Continental Congress eventually becomes the U.S. Navy.
1775, November 11 - United States Marine Corp is organized under authority of Continental Congress
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1776, January 2 - the first known date when
United States of America was used in a leter from Stephen Moylan to Joseph Reed. From Who Coined the Phrase ‘United States of America’? You May Never Guess by staff published November 5, 2014 on New York Historical Society Museum & Library.
1776, January 2 - The Continental Congress publishes the “Tory Act” resolution which describes how colonies should handle Americans who remain loyal to the British and King George.
1776, June 10 - the Continental Congress appointed a committee of five to draft a statement of independence for the colonies.
June 30, 2023 post by the US National Archives on Facebook:
On June 10, 1776, the Continental Congress appointed a committee of five to draft a statement of independence for the colonies. The committee included Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Robert R. Livingston, and Roger Sherman. Jefferson drafted the statement while Adams and Franklin made some changes. The draft was presented to the Congress following the July 2nd adoption of the independence section of the Lee Resolution. The Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. It was engrossed on parchment, and on August 2, 1776, and delegates began signing it.
Learn more about the drafting of the Declaration of Independence on the Milestone Documents page:
Image: Engrossed Declaration of Independence, 1776.
1776, June 12 - Virginia's colonial legislature becomes 1st to adopt a Bill of Rights. Read the Bill: - Bill of Rights - The Virginia Declaration of Rights. It was written by Stafford County resident George Mason. It was the basis for the preamble of the Declaration of Independence that was signed on July 4th. It also formed the basis of the Bill of Rights.
1776, June 16 - the Continental Congress approved the Declaration of Independence from FFF: The Fourth of July 2015 from the United States Census Bureau.
1776, July - the United States population was about 2.5 million from FFF: The Fourth of July 2015 from the United States Census Bureau. See the current population numbers at the United States Census BureauU.S. and World Population Clockfrom July 3, 2014 post on Twitter
July 4, 2023 post by the US National Weather Service Philadelphia/Mount Holly on Facebook:
Thomas Jefferson, the lead author of the Declaration of Independence, was also an avid weather observer. Here is part of his log from July 1776 in Philadelphia. The late 18th century was during a climate period known as "The Little Ice Age" and a notable coolness is observed here compared to what we expect almost 250 years later. Courtesy of https://jefferson-weather-records.org/
1776, July 2 - Continental Congress ended its debate and approved the resolution proposed on June 7 by Richard Henry Lee of Virginia and seconded by John Adams. The newspapers of the day treated the action as the colonies’ definitive word on the break with Great Britain. Read John Adams’s vision of July 4 was July 2 on The National Archives Prologue: Pieces of History blog.
July 2, 2023 post by Fold3 on Facebook:
In 1776, Richard H. Lee of Virginia introduced this resolution at the Second Continental Congress, "That These United Colonies are, and of right ought to be free and independent..." Explore the documents that gave birth to a nation in our free Continental Congress Papers collection: http://fnote.it/6xw0
July 2, 2023 post by the Museum of the American Revolution on Facebook:
On this day in 1776, with the passing of the Lee Resolution, “the Continental Congress declared the United Colonies Free and Independent States.”
The announcement just made it in the July 2 edition of the Pennsylvania Evening Post. It's easy to miss on the left side of the page, opposite an advertisement for the return of an escaped enslaved person, an apt reminder of the paradox of the ideals of liberty and equality laid out in the Declaration existing alongside the tyranny of slavery.
1776, July 4 - the Declaration of Independence was adopted on July 4, but none of the Continental Congress delegates signed the Declaration of Independence until August 2.
John Adams, Founding Father and future President, was certain that July 2 would be the day that Americans would remember as Independence Day. That was the day that the Continental Congress declared the United States independent. From Happy July 2, John Adams! on
The National Archives Prologue: Pieces of History blog and You asked, we answered: How did soldiers commemorate the first Fourth of July? on Smithsonian National Museum of American History blog. See Fun Fourth Facts on The Genealogy Center blog. Interesting trivia, united is lower case "u" in the original mention of the united States: In Congress, July 4, 1776. The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America. See Declaration of Independence: A Transcription Note: The following text is a transcription of the Stone Engraving of the parchment Declaration of Independence (the document on display in the Rotunda at the National Archives Museum.) The spelling and punctuation reflects the original. Copied from America's Founding Documents at The National Archives. July 4, 2022 post of the image on right by Today's Document with information about the Dunlap Broadside [Declaration of Independence] at The National Archives.
July 4, 2022 post by The Library of Congress on Facebook:
INDEPENDENCE DAY: Check out Thomas Jefferson's rough draft of the Declaration of Independence, complete with deletions, corrections, insertions & other edits from members of his committee prior to July 4. Thomas Jefferson's rough draft of the Declaration of Independence.
July 4, 2023 post by Today's Document on Facebook:
Happy Independence Day!
Engrossed Declaration of Independence
Record Group 360: Records of the Continental and Confederation Congresses and the Constitutional Convention
Series: Miscellaneous Papers of the Continental Congress
IN CONGRESS, JULY 4, 1776.
The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,
July 4, 2022 post by Today's Document on Facebook:
Happy Fourth of July!
This is the Dunlap Broadside, the first printed version of the Declaration of Independence.
Dunlap Broadside [Declaration of Independence]
File Unit: Rough Journals, 9/5/1774 - 3/2/1789
Series: Papers of the Continental Congress, 1774 - 1789
Record Group 360: Records of the Continental and Confederation Congresses and the Constitutional Convention, 1765 - 1821
IN CONGRESS, JULY 4, 1776.
A D E C L A R A T I O N
BY THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
IN GENERAL CONGRESS ASSEMBLED.
July 4, 2023 post by the Library of Virginia on Facebook:
The Library of Virginia acquired this copy of the Declaration of Independence in 2004. It is one of the earliest-known reproductions of the Declaration of Independence and was engraved from a copper plate in 1818 by Benjamin Owen Tyler, a professor of penmanship in Washington, D. C. Tyler's reproduction was made less than 50 years after the original Declaration was written and his text is accompanied by near-perfect facsimiles of the signer's signatures. Only a few dozen of Tyler's copies were printed on parchment and the Library has one of these. Learn more at https://edu.lva.virginia.gov/.../declaration-of... #LVA200years #July4th
July 4, 2023 post by Museum of the American Revolution on Facebook:
Happy Independence Day! On this day in 1776, the Continental Congress formally adopted the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia.
This 1823 copy, now on display at the Museum, is as close as you can get to seeing the Declaration as it looked right after the founders signed it in 1776. The original Declaration with the founders’ signatures is badly faded and parts of it are illegible.
To help preserve the already-damaged original, in 1820, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams hired a Washington D.C. engraver named William J. Stone to create this near duplicate. It took Stone three years to make this copy, during which he had the original Declaration in his shop. All subsequent copies of the Declaration have been made from the Stone engravings.
This example of the Stone engraving, on loan from DOI Holdings LLC, belonged to the last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, Maryland. In a note on the bottom left, Carroll presented the engraving to a friend and signed it “exactly half a century after having affixed his name to the original.”
See it on your visit: https://bit.ly/3acQM11
July 4, 2023 post by Heritage Documentation Programs, NPS on Facebook:
July 4th seems like a most appropriate day read the Declaration of Independence!
Download a high-resolution image of the Declaration or read a transcript of the complete text from the US National Archives website at America's Founding Documents
#declarationofindependence #JulyFourth #foudingfathers
1776, July 6 - the First Newspaper Printing of the Declaration of Independence in the Pennsylvania Evening Post shown at the Museum of the American Revolution.
July 6, 2023 post by Museum of the American Revolution on Facebook:
On this day in 1776, the Philadelphia-based Pennsylvania Evening Post presented the first newspaper printing of the newly adopted Declaration of Independence.
Most Americans read or heard the words of the Declaration of Independence via newspapers and printed broadsides. In Philadelphia, a German language translation appeared in the July 9, 1776 issue of the Pennsylvanischer Staatsbote, a newspaper that served Pennsylvania’s large German-speaking community. By the end of August 1776, the Declaration had been reprinted in at least 29 newspapers and 14 broadsides.
Take a closer look from our collection.
1776, July 8 - the Liberty Bell rings for independence announcing the Declaration of Independence first reading to the public at Independence Hall (then the PA State House) in Philadelphia (in addition to Trenton, NJ and Easton, PA).
1776, July 9 - days after the Declaration of Independence was ratified by the Second Continental Congress, George Washington ordered that the document be read out loud to the Continental Army in Manhattan. From July 9, 2020 post by Daughters of the American Revolution National Headquarters on Facebook.
1776, August 2 - the Founding Fathers signed the Declaration of Independence shown on Archives.gov.
August 2, 2023 post by National Historical Publications and Records Commission on Facebook:
On this day in 1776, members of Congress signed the Declaration of Independence.
According to the Journal of the Continental Congress of August 2nd: "The declaration of independence being engrossed and compared at the table was signed." One of the most widely held misconceptions about the Declaration is that it was signed on July 4th.
Indeed, a July 19th order of Congress called for an official copy of the declaration to be “fairly engrossed” on parchment for all of the delegates to sign. Not every member did.
Eventually 56 delegates signed, although all were not present on August 2. Among the later signers were Elbridge Gerry, Oliver Wolcott, Lewis Morris, Thomas McKean, and Matthew Thornton, who found that he had no room to sign with the other New Hampshire delegates.
In January 1777, the names of the signers were made public, when they were printed in a broadside edition of the Declaration published in Baltimore, Maryland.
You can read more about the history of the document at
https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/declaration-history and an account by Thomas Jefferson can be perused on Founders Online at https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-01-02-0160
1776, September 9 - the United States of America gets its name by the Continental Congress. Previously referred to as the
United Colonies from September 9, 2015 post by Campaign 1776 on Facebook.
1776, September 22 - American Captain Nathan Hale is hanged as a spy by the British with no trial. His last words are reputed to be
I only regret that I have but one life to give for my country.
1777: Hyacinth Laselle, son of British Indian agent Jacques Laselle, becomes the first white child born at what is now Fort Wayne. Copied from Millennium milestones in Fort Wayne in the archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper.
1777, June 14 - the flag of the United States is created by an official act of the Continental Congress. See Today in History: June 14 - Flag Day from Library of Congress American Memory Today In History blog.
Resolved that the flag of the thirteen united states be 13 stripes alternate red and white, that the union be 13 stars white in a blue field representing a new constellation. Read more at the National Flag Day Foundation and see Guidelines for Display of the Flag from U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs from Pointers from the Flag Code, just in time for Flag Day by Intern Talia Berday-Sacks published June 10, 2014 onSmithsonian National Museum of American History blog. President Harry S. Truman designated the day as National Flag Day June 14, 1949. See the
Star Spangled Banner flag posted June 14, 2022 by the National Society United States Daughters of 1812 on Facebook. On June 11, 1990 the Supreme Court strikes down law prohibiting desecration of American flag from Texas v. Johnson, 491 U.S. 397 (1989).
Flag burning constitutes symbolic speech that is protected by the First Amendment from Facts and Case Summary - Texas v. Johnson on uscourts.gov.
July 4, 2014 post by the Indiana State Library on Facebook:
Happy 4th of July!
First Stars and Stripe 1777 – For over a year after the signing of the Declaration of Independence, the United States did not have an official flag. Meeting in Philadelphia in June, the Continental Congress declared: “Resolved that the flag of the United States be 13 stripes alternate red and white, that the union be 13 stars white in a blue field representing a new constellation.” No guidelines, however, were provided for the arrangement of the stars, and an amazing number of variations were created
1777, August 14 - Draft notice for the Continental Army, 8/14/1777 posted August 14, 2022 by Today's Document on Facebook.
1777, November 15 - The first "constitution" of the United States, the Articles of Confederation were adopted by the Continental Congress 240 years ago on November 15, 1777 and ratified on March 1, 1781 : Today's Document Articles of Confederation on Tumblr.com.
1778, February 6 - Treaty of Alliance with France (1778) The American Colonies and France signed this military treaty on February 6, 1778. It formalized France’s financial and military support of the revolutionary government in America. At The National Archives.
1778, September 17
September 17, 2023 post by American Experience | PBS on Facebook:
The United States signed its first written peace treaty with a Native American tribe on September 17, 1778. The agreement, made with the Lenape Nation, served as a means of establishing a military alliance during the American Revolution.
1778 Treaty of Fort Pitt: U.S. Treaty-Making with the Lenape Nation at the National Museum of American Diplomacy.
1778, October 29 - the English army under British leader Lieutenant-Governor Henry Hamilton came through the “Glorious Gate” described by the Miami War Chief Little Turtle on their way from Detroit to Vincennes. Described in Red Coats through Fort Wayne by Tom Castaldi published March 1, 2016 in History Center Notes & Queries blog.
1779, February 25 - George Rogers Clark captured Fort Sackville at Vincennes, Indiana, one of the most important battles of the Revolutionary War, when the British surrendered at Vincennes, Indiana, marking the beginning of the end of British influence in America's western frontier. GEORGE ROGERS CLARK DAY, FEBRUARY 25 (1779) Indiana Code 1-1-13 was adopted by the 1975 Indiana General Assembly to celebrate the accomplishments of Clark in the American Revolution. See Special Days of Celebration by the Indiana Historical Bureau. Today in History - February 25 at The Library of Congress
See November 5, 2015 and February 25, 2017 post by Indiana Bicentennial Commission on Facebook:
Did you know that one of the most important battles of the Revolutionary War was fought in Indiana?
George Rogers Clark was a fearless and aggressive frontiersman who helped win the Revolutionary War. Learning that the British retook Fort Sackville in Vincennes, George Rogers Clark and 170 Americans and French settlers headed east for Vincennes 280 miles away.
The march normally took eight days but it took Clark and his men 18 due to bad weather. They were often forced to wade through freezing flood water, sometimes up to their necks. It was only Clark's leadership and good humor that kept them going. Veterans of the march fondly recalled a story Clark told about a drummer boy who used his drum as a flotation device for most of the trip.
On February 23, 1779, Clark and his men finally reached Vincennes. The next day Clark revealed his ingenious plan to capture the fort. Despite the anticipated challenges of his overland march, Clark had ordered his men to bring battle flags sufficient for a force of 500.
Due to a steep incline, British observers in Fort Sackville could not see Clark's men fully on the bank of the river. But they could clearly see the tops of the unfurled flags as they were marched back and forth to fool them. That coupled with the uncanny accuracy and rate of fire of Clark's Kentucky riflemen convinced Lt. Gov. Henry Hamilton to surrender thinking he was outnumbered. Clark had won without the loss of a single man.
This became the first major American victory in the West during the Revolutionary War. Because of Clark, American included what is today the Midwest instead of just theEast Coast. The victory would help George Washington convince France theAmericans could win the war ensuring French support for the fledglingRepublic when it was needed most. Clark's victory also helped theAmericans win major agreements from the British in the Treaty of 1783.Because of this, Clark eventually became known as "the father of the Northwest Territory".
In 1784, five years after his triumph at Vincennes, Clark founded the city of Clarksville, Indiana where land for the town had been granted to Clark and some of his men as a reward for their bravery.
You can learn more about this Revolutionary War hero by reading this in fantastic article from the "Indiana Historian" http://www.in.gov/history/files/fallfortsackville.pdf via the Indiana Historical Bureau. You can also visit the George Rogers Clark National Historical Park to learn more about the Battle of Fort Sackville.
Febuary 25, 2017 post by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook:
February 25 is George Rogers Clark Day! On this day in 1779, British Lieutenant General of Detroit Henry Hamilton surrendered Fort Sackville at Vincennes to George Rogers Clark. The surrender came after an 18 day trek by Clark and his men from Kaskaskia (in present-day Illinois). Learn more about George Rogers Clark's journey to Vincennes and more here: George Rogers Clark.
February 25, 2023 similar post by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook:
It’s George Rogers Clark Day! Each year on February 25, Indiana commemorates the 1779 defeat of British troops at Fort Sackville by American Colonel George Rogers Clark and his forces, both American military and French supporters. According to the George Rogers Clark National Historical Park: “As a result of Clark's brilliant military activities, the British ceded to the United States a vast area of land west of the Appalachian Mountains,” including Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin and part of Minnesota. Of course, Clark’s achievements also came at the expense of indigenous peoples in the region, some who were allied with the British, but others uninvolved in the conflict. The Shawnee and Piankeshaw were particularly impacted. Clark’s is a complicated legacy, so why not unpack it for yourself. IHB has collected and made accessible many relevant primary sources, including Clark’s memoir. We also have teacher resources and a podcast episode that attempts to show a modern audience the significance of the fall of Fort Sackville by imagining . . . what if events had unfolded differently? Find these and more on the IHB website: George Rogers Clark
Frederick C. Yohn, Fall of Fort Sackville painting courtesy of the Indiana Historical Bureau, The Fall of Fort Sackville
February 25, 2023 post by Indiana Historical Society
On this day in 1779, British commander Henry Hamilton surrendered Fort Sackville to George Rogers Clark. This marked the decline of British control and was an important step in securing the Northwest Territory for the United States. Pictured below is the commemoration of the event’s sesquicentennial, 150th anniversary.
Notice the big Purdue University drum in this 1929 photo!
1779, July 16 - General
Mad Anthony Wayne helped defeat the British in the Battle of Stony Point during the American Revolutionary War. March 1, 2019, the Fort Wayne city council declared July 16 as General Anthony Wayne Day beginning July 16, 2020 to recognize this historical day.
‘If it wasn’t for Anthony Wayne, there may not be a United States of America’; City Council officials share the importance of Anthony Wayne Day published March 1, 2019 on
ABC WPTA21.com TV station.
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