1910-1919 Timeline of Allen County, Indiana

1911 - 1912 - 1913 - 1914 - 1915 - 1916 - 1917 - 1918 - 1919

A page of photos with anything from car accidents and construction projects to family reunions and fishermen showing off their catch was published every Sunday in the early 1900s Journal Gazette newspapers. Several examples from the 1916s and 1917s are seen in the Early 1900s: Journal Gazette Picture Pages by Corey McMaken published April 11, 2019 in The Journal Gazette newspaper.

Some of the articles listed below are from the 1910 to 1919: Era of industry from the Fort Wayne History Stories about time periods in the archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper.


1910 Fort Wayne, Indiana, city directory by R.L. Polk & Co. cn on Archive.org

1910 - U.S. population was 91,972,266 (up 21 percent from 1900). From 1910 to 1919: Era of industryTimeline: Decade of development and destruction from the Archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper.

1910 - Fort Wayne's population was 63,933 (up from 45,115 in 1900) while the World population surpasses 1.5 billion. From 1910 to 1919: Era of industryTimeline: Decade of development and destruction from the Archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper.

1910 - Daily newspapers number highest ever, 2,600. The number was 2,500 in 1920. The era of muckraking. From 1910 to 1919: Era of industryTimeline: Decade of development and destruction from the Archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper.

1910 - postcard "Birdseye view from Electric Light Tower of Fort Wayne Indiana discussed March 23, 2017 on the original Great Memories and History of Fort Wayne, Indiana page on Facebook.

1910 - Report of Charles Mulford Robinson for Fort Wayne civic improvement association (1910) - Robinson, Charles Mulford, 1869-1917. Archive.org

1910 - Fort Wayne with might and main : Indiana's busiest, happiest city (1910) compiled and published by Ralph E. Avery Archive.org has lots of photos.

1910 - photo of downtown area around the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception discussed January 13, 2018 on You are positively from Fort Wayne, if you remember... Archived group on Facebook.

1910, January 5 - Fort Wayne News newspaper story about Marion Black the first man to have a car in Fort Wayne, one of the first to have a low-wheel bicycle, wanted to build the First Aeroplane Here. From January 5, 2013 post on the original Great Memories and History of Fort Wayne, Indiana page on Facebook.

1910, January 13 - electron tube inventor Lee De Forest arranged the world’s first radio broadcast to the public in New York City.

1910, April 15 - Chas. E. Irwin(sp?), the census enumerator, started recording the 13th U.S. Federal Census in Aboite Township.

1910 - August 10, 11, 12 - Souvenir book of Indiana State Firemen's Association convention held at Fort Wayne, August 10, 11, 12, 1920 - Indiana State Firemen's Association on Archive.org.

1910, September 21 - one of the deadliest interurban crashes occurred on the sharp curve of track near Kingsland. A car, empty except for crew members, collided with another car carrying passengers from Bluffton to the Fort Wayne County Fair. Upon impact, the emptier car rode atop the full car, ripping the top off of it. Because of Kingsland's remoteness, no physician was available to treat the victims, and train cars could not transport doctors until an hour and a half after the crash that took the lives of over forty passengers. Survivor John Boyd recalled, "There was a splintering crush, a dull, grinding as wood and iron resolved themselves into a mass of wreckage and mingled themselves with human blood and flesh and bones." A 2014 Indy Star article noted that a crash investigation found that dispatchers failed to monitor the extra cars on the track that day. Learn more with their Indiana state historical marker: Kingsland Interurban Wreck. Copied from a September 21, 2022 post by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook with an image showing the scene of the wreck, courtesy of the Indiana Historical Society.

1910, October 23 - in the air above Fort Wayne Driving Park, Miss Blanche Stuart Scott  became the first woman in America to make a solo public flight by airplane. The amazing flying Miss Blanche Scott by Richard Battin posted October 19, 1994 in SUMMIT CITY HISTORY NOTES ofCityscapes from the Archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper. On Oct. 23, 1910, Blanche Stuart Scott became the first American woman to make a solo public flight when she flew across the Fort Wayne Driving Association's field. copied from Oct. 23, 1910: Blanche Stuart Scott becomes first American woman to make public flight by Corey McMaken Mar 8, 2022 Updated Jun 6, 2022 on History Journal features and stories of historical interest from the archives of The Journal Gazette. On October 24, 1910, she made her debut as a member of the Curtiss exhibition team at an air meet in Fort Wayne, Indiana. She was the first woman to fly at a public event in America. Her exhibition flying earned her the nickname "Tomboy of the Air". Copied from Blanche Scott on Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Three page document Blanche Stuart Scott: The First Female American Aviator by Hannah Chan, FAA history intern at FAA.gov.

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1911 Fort Wayne, Indiana, city directory by R.L. Polk & Co. cn Part 1 photocopy through Hofer on Archive.org

1911 Fort Wayne, Indiana, city directory by R.L. Polk & Co. cn Part 2 photocopy Hofer through Stopher on Archive.org

1911 Fort Wayne, Indiana, city directory by R.L. Polk & Co. cn Part 3 photocopy Stoppenhagen through the end on Archive.org

A Trip Through New York City in 1911 by https://shir-man.com posted Feb 23, 2020 on YouTube
1911 New York footage taken by the Swedish company Svenska Biografteatern on a trip to America. Colorized and sound added for the ambiance and do not represent real historical data. The film gives a visual look at what city life might have been like for people living during this time. Found in a comment for a shorter version of this video posted January 24, 2022 by Old Photos on Facebook and May 18, 2022 by Dead Fred's Genealogy Photo Archive on Facebook.

. They also posted 21 old films from 1895 to 1902 colorized and upscaled in 60 fps, with sound in a 22 minute YouTubevideo.

1911 - German-American Trusts Company organized . From 1910 to 1919: Era of industry Timeline: Decade of development and destruction from the Archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper.

1911 - Fort Wayne with might and main : Indiana's busiest, happiest city / [compiled and published by Ralph E. Avery] (1911) - Avery, Ralph E. (Ralph Emmett), comp Archive.org.

Rooftop location
NWS Northern Indiana Twitter photo

1911, May 20 - At 7:00 AM on Saturday, May 20th, 1911, the first official weather observation in Fort Wayne’s history was taken on the southeast corner of Berry and Calhoun Streets. It was taken on the roof of the nine story Shoaff Building and telegraphed to Washington, D.C. It was here where a first-order United States Weather Bureau Office had been established and began operations by taking this observation. The Weather Bureau would eventually be renamed to the National Weather Service in 1970. Copied from On this date in 1911: The first official Fort Wayne weather observation by Nathan Gidley published May 20, 2022 and posted May 20, 2022 on Facebook by CBS WANE-TV NewsChannel 15. See May 22, 2014 intersection photo on Twitter and the first observation rooftop location photo May 20, 2014 by NWS Northern Indiana on Twitter. See Weather Timeline, these photos and more at Northern Indiana Historical Pictures Page at Northern Indiana Weather.gov.

On this date in 1911: The first official Fort Wayne weather observation by: Nathan Gidley posted: May 20, 2022 on CBS WANE-TV NewsChannel 15

1911, November 4 - Chevrolet officially enters the auto market in competition against the Ford Model T. See a photo of a 1914 Chevrolet roadster or America on the Move which explores the role of transportation in American history on the National Museum of American History.

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1912 Fort Wayne, Indiana, city directory by R.L. Polk & Co. cn on Archive.org

1912 - Famous Italian pictures and their story, with sketch of the artists ...(1912) - Haberly-Robertson, Frances Maria Stimson, 1852- Archive.org.

1912 - the Star-Spangled Banner was gifted to the Smithsonian Institution formerly on loan since 1907 from New York stockbroker Eben Appleton who inherited it in 1878 upon his mother's death. From the Smithsonian National Museum of American History blog.

1912, January 6 - New Mexico becomes 47th state

1912, February 14 - Arizona becomes 48th state

1912, March 12 - Juliette Low establishes the American Girl Guides in Savannah, Georgia later known as the Girl Scouts. Summer memories of Girl Scouting in 1919, now online January 29, 2013 Smithsonian National Museum of American History blog. In the summer of 1917 Marion County, Indiana's first troop came only 5 years later."

1912, April 14 - the RMS Titanic struck an iceberg.

1912, April 16 - ocean liner Titanic Sinks Carrying Hundreds To Their Deaths is the front page story of The Journal Gazette newspaper.

1912 July 4 - Formal dedication of Foster Park. From 1910 to 1919: Era of industry Timeline: Decade of development and destruction from the Archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper.

1912, July 4 - ACCOUNT BY J. M. STOUDER. July 4, 1912, will hereafter be memorable to the citizens of Fort Wayne and Allen county. On that day Albert and Charles Loch- ner uncovered the grave of Little Turtle, the great Miami war chief. The brothers had contracted to build a house for Dr. George W. Gillie on Lawton place, and in digging the cellar uncovered several Indian graves. Noticing that whatever was in the graves was appropriated by the laborers, the contractors called off the crew and with the assistance of Dr. George W. Gillie dug the drain in which the grave of Little Turtle was found. The finders had no idea of the identity of the body. The skull was carefully kept and presented to Dr. M. W. Ivins, dentist at 1118 Rivermet avenue, who had requested the Lochner brothers to save a good specimen for him. The balance of the remains were scattered and carried away by the curious as mementos. Copied from 3-page article Stouder, J. M. (1912). The Grave of Little Turtle. Indiana Magazine of History. Retrieved from Stouder, J. M. (1912). The Grave of Little Turtle. Indiana Magazine of History. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/imh/article/view/5813. At Indiana Magazine of History journal in the archives at Indiana University Scholarworks.

1912, September 1 - Carl G. Fisher announced his proposal for a transcontinental highway at a dinner party for automobile manufacturers, which took place at Indianapolis' Deutsche Haus. A proponent of the Good Roads movement, he proclaimed, “A road across the United States! Let’s build it before we’re too old to enjoy it!” The construction of U.S. transcontinental roads, including the east-west Lincoln Highway and north-south Dixie Highway, enabled long-distance travel by automobile. Learn more about the Good Roads Movement They also included an image showing Fisher’s portrait from the Lincoln Highway Association, courtesy of the University of Michigan Library Digital Collections. Copied from a September 1, 2022 post by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook.

1912, October 14 -  Theodore Roosevelt was shot in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The bullet tore through his overcoat, pierced the manuscript of his speech, flattened his steel spectacle case, and drove into his chest. Despite his wound, Roosevelt still insisted on making his scheduled speech. From October 14, 2014 post on American Experience on Facebook. See also The Speech That Saved Teddy Roosevelt's Life by Patricia O'Toole published in November 2012 on Smithsonian.com.

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1913 Fort Wayne, Indiana, city directory by R.L. Polk & Co. cn on Archive.org

1913 - Fort Wayne, Indiana : a presentation of her resources, achievements and possibilities ...(1913) - Gardner, H. W., comp Archive.org.

1913 - Pamphlets (Volume 5 - 1913) - Illustrated Guide to the Allen County Court House, Public Library of Fort Wayne and Allen County Archive.org.

1913 - the U.S. Navy issues white tee shirts as a standard part of sailors' uniforms as underwear with a crew neck. Readers share stories as T-shirt turns 100 by Rosa Salter Rodriguez published September 15, 2013 in The Journal Gazette newspaper.

1913 - Fred W. Wolf of Fort Wayne, Indiana, invents the first refrigerator for home use, a small unit mounted on top of an old-fashioned icebox and requiring external plumbing connections. Copied from Household Appliances Timeline on greatachievements.org.

1913 - The automotive industry takes off with the development of the Ford Company assembly line producing the Model T. From A Brief History of the U.S. Automotive Industry on A Breakdown of the U.S. Auto Industry: History, Economics, & Investing Dynamics by The Investopedia Team Updated September 27, 2021 Reviewed by Thomas Brock on Investopedia.com.

 1913, February 3 - three-quarters of the states ratified the 16th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Indiana ratified it January 30, 1911 from Wikipedia. It was certified by Secretary of State Philander C. Knox on February 25, 1913. In 1861, the Civil War prompted the first American income tax, a flat 3 percent on all incomes over $800. In 1894, Congress enacted a 2-percent tax on annual income over $4,000, but it was quickly struck down as unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. July 12, 1909, Congress passed a joint congressional resolution proposing an income tax amendment. The first Internal Revenue Bureau Form 1040, as provided by Public Law 63-16, was approved October 3, 1913. From The 16th Amendment and 100 years of Federal income taxes on the The National Archives Prologue: Pieces of History blog.

1913, February 8 - Full page newspaper article shows map of three rivers and Some Historic Places in the City of Fort Wayne Over Which Flags of Four Nations Have Floated and continued on page 11 column 1 Some Historic Places in The City of Fort Wayne. Clipped from The Fort Wayne Sentinel 08 Feb 1913, Saturday, page 9. Clipped by StanFollisFW on 18 Feb 2022.

Fort Wayne Sentinel newspaper

1913, February 25 - 16th Amendment to the Constitution adopted (graduated income tax).

1913, March 10 - the Indiana legislature passed a bill setting the third Friday of April as Arbor Day. Originally, April 11, 1884 was declared the first Arbor Day in Indiana. Between 1884 and 1912, Arbor Day was observed on various dates at the discretion of the governor. The most common date was the last Friday of October. It is not known why a fall date was chosen over a spring day. ... In 1929, an amendment was passed in the legislature changing the date to the second Friday in April. Due to frequent conflicts with school spring vacations and the fact that Arbor Day occasionally fell on Good Friday, the date was again changed in 1991 to the last Friday of April, corresponding to the official date of the National Arbor Day. Copied from Learn more about Indiana Arbor Day on the Indiana DNR - Indiana Department of Natural Resources web site.

1913, March 13 - Fort Wayne News ad stating the largest horse and mule market in northern Indiana was in Fort Wayne at 1001 Wells Street from November 2, 2012 post on the original Great Memories and History of Fort Wayne, Indiana page on Facebook.

1913, March 14 - the Indiana General Assembly adopted the official state song: On the Banks of the Wabash Far Away by Paul Dresser (Indiana Code: IC 1-2-6-1). See the Indiana State Song on IN.gov. From March 14, 2018 by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook. See Indiana State Song onSmithsonian National Museum of American History blog.

1913, March 21 - the heavy rains started leading to the Great 1913 Flood, a 100 year flood, when the Maumee River rose from seven feet to twenty-six feet overnight. 26.1 feet is the highest ever recorded flood stage for the Maumee River from Fort Wayne Indiana Climate at the National Weather Service. The worst flooding Fort Wayne has ever seen. Fifeteen thousand people fled their houses and six people died. That left 20% of the city homeless. What is now Headwaters Park the confluence of the three rivers was the epicenter of the flood. Some flooded streets were Wells, Eureka (now Clair), Spy Run, Columbia Street bridge, Clinton around Fourth, Superior, Calhoun. The Fort Wayne Baseball League Park, located in what is now Phase I or the western portion of Headwaters Park, flooded where famous baseball players Babe Ruth, Bobby Matthews, and Zane Grey played. The flood led to the city building flood walls around some neighborhoods. See the blog The City That Saved Itself--TWICE! March 6, 2013 by Nancy McCammon-Hansen on History Center Notes & Queries blog and 'Our National Calamity': The Great Easter 1913 Flood...2013 is the centennial... blog.

1913, March 23 - the Great Flood devastated much of Indiana, as the Ohio and Wabash rivers and their tributaries spilled over banks and levees across the state. For days, the flood swept through Indiana and proved to be one of the worst weather disasters in Midwest history, causing hundreds to lose their lives and thousands their homes. Film star Carole Lombard was one of thousands impacted and her Fort Wayne childhood home became a rescue center. Copied from a March 23, 2019 post by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook.

1913, April 8 - the 17th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified establishing direct popular election of senators. Previously, members of the Senate were elected by each state's legislature.

1913, April 16 - Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel newspaper article about William Dawkins, age 91, the oldest resident in New Haven passed away. Born in England, he came to Fort Wayne in 1841, then the next year moved to Maples not far from New Haven. From several January 24, 2013 posts on the original Great Memories and History of Fort Wayne, Indiana page on Facebook.

1913, May 31 - the 17th Amendment to the United States Constitution providing popular, or direct, election of senators by voters won approval by the required three-fourths of the state legislatures by April 8, 1913, and was declared part of the Constitution, the 17th Amendment, on May 31 by Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan. This changed Article I, Section 3, of the Constitution, which says: The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one vote. Read more at The 17th Amendment Observes Its Centennial on The National Archives Prologue: Pieces of History blog.

1913, June 14 - several newspapers ran stories stating that the postmaster had officially decreed that children could no longer be sent through the mail. From A Brief History of Children Sent Through the Mail: In the early days of the parcel post, some parents took advantage of the mail in unexpected ways Read about another example.

Weather extremes

1913, June 19 - weather comments about record flood, tornado, cold and heat in Fort Wayne News newspaper shown on the right side.

1913, September 10 - the route of the Lincoln Highway, an idea by Indiana's Carl Fisher for the first coast-to-coast paved road, was revealed.

1913, October 3 - U.S. Income Tax was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson. The 16th Amendment, passed by Congress on July 2, 1909, was ratified February 3, 1913. See History of the US Income Tax on the Library of Congress web site. Indiana was the 15th state to ratify the 16th Amendment January 30, 1913. The United States Revenue Act of 1913 also known as the Tariff Act, Underwood Tariff, Underwood Tariff Act, or Underwood-Simmons Act re-imposed the federal income tax following the ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment. See also Revenue Act of 1913 on Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.

1913, September 9 - the 100th Anniversary of First Annual Miller Family Reunion held September 4 at the home of Mrs. John Dawkins east of town from a photo in the The News-Sentinel newspaper. Reprinted in the September 2013 Allen County Lines quarterly publication in the Membership section of the Allen County Genealogical Society of Indiana website, pages 16-17 with additional information.

1913 newspaper photo of location Lincoln Highway dedication
Indiana Lincoln Highway Association photo

1913, September 10 - the first coast-to-coast highway in the United States opened. Known as the Lincoln Highway, the road originally ran for almost 3,400 miles through 13 states. The original signage was a hodge podge mix and many signs were stolen by souvenir hunters or were not sturdy enough to last. In 1928 the Lincoln Highway Association working with Boy Scouts came up with a daring plan. They workd to place 3400 Concrete Markers across the country and secure The Lincoln Highway as a Living and Perputual Memorial to the Great Abraham Lincoln-All in one Day. From Accessible Archives on Facebook. See also The Lincoln Highway National Museum & Archives, 102 Old Lincoln Way West, Galion, Ohio 44833.

1913, October 31 - opening of the Lincoln Highway through New Haven and Fort Wayne, Allen County, as well as Churubusco, Whitley County was shown in the November 1, 1913 The News-Sentinel newspaper. See photos of the 1913 newspaper and current location of the castle-like Holderman Home shown bottom left in the 1913 newspaper photo posted November 4, 2018 on Indiana Lincoln Highway Association on Facebook. Several local photos were posted October 13, 2018 post by The History Center on Facebook and mentions the June 22, 1915 Fort Wayne dedication. Local markers were placed September 1, 1928, then rededicated in downtown Fort Wayne October 31, 2020.

1913 - The Griswold-Phelps handbook and guide to Fort Wayne, Indiana, for 1913-1914 - Griswold, B. J. (Bert Joseph), 1873-1927 Includes many interesting photos and advertising matter on Archive.org

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1914 Fort Wayne, Indiana, city directory by R.L. Polk & Co. cn: Part 1 Names through McPhail on Archive.org

1914 Fort Wayne, Indiana, city directory by R.L. Polk & Co. cn Part 2 McPhail through the end on Archive.org

The Griswold-Phelps handbook and guide to Fort Wayne, Indiana, for 1913-1914 by Griswold, B. J. (Bert Joseph), 1873-1927, labeled Fort Wayne Indiana's Happiest City on Archive.org

1914 - first red-green traffic light introduced in Cleveland. From 1910 to 1919: Era of industry Timeline: Decade of development and destruction from the Archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper.

1914 - Penn Central Railroad station now Baker Street Station opens.

1914 - Fun Fact: In 1914, the Lincoln Highway came to New Haven while being laid between New York City and San Francisco as the first coast-to-coast highway. The road was conceived by Indiana automobile entrepreneur, Carl Fisher. As part of his idea, communities along the route would provide equipment in return for free materials and a place along America’s first transcontinental highway. Copied from a September 4, 2022 post by City of New Haven Indiana on Facebook.

1914, February 19 - May Pierstorff, the most famous parcel post children packages, just short of her 6th birthday, was mailed from her parents’ home in Grangeville, Idaho to her grandparents’ house about 73 miles away for just 53-cents worth of stamps. Read more in Very Special Deliveries by Nancy Pope February 19, 2013 Smithsonian National Postal Museum.

1914 Flood Pictures

1914, May 13 - First Pictures of the 1914 Flood in The Journal Gazette newspaper was discussed May 14, 2013 on the original Great Memories and History of Fort Wayne, Indiana page on Facebook.

1914, June 17 - the first transcontinental telephone line was completed near the border of the Nevada and Utah at Wendover joining East and West in voice communications for the first time. See photo on FamilySearch.org.

1914, July 31 - NYSE closes due to the outbreak of WWI. Does not reopen until December.

1914, August 5 - the first electric traffic light was installed in Cleveland, Ohio.

1814, August 24 - British soldiers marched on Washington, DC destroying the U.S. Capitol, The White House and and many other public buildings. Post included a photo with the caption: Scars from the 1814 #fire appeared 176 years later, in 1990, when white paint was removed from the walls in the course of #restoration. From August 24, 2022 post by Heritage Documentation Programs, NPSon Facebook.

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Oaks, Pigeons and a Forgotten Era looks at the ecological impact of passenger pigeons and how they shaped our forests by The History Guy: History Deserves to Be Remembered published September 19, 2018 on YouTube

1914, September 1 - Martha, the world's last Passenger Pigeon, died at the Cincinnati Zoo. The species lived in enormous migratory flocks until the early 20th century, when hunting and habitat destruction led to its demise. One flock in 1866 in southern Ontario was described as being 1 mi[le] (1.5 km) wide and 300 mi (500 km) long, took 14 hours to pass, and held in excess of 3.5 billion birds. That number, if accurate, would likely represent a large fraction of the entire population at the time. Some estimate 3 to 5 billion Passenger Pigeons were in the United States when Europeans arrived in North America. Others argue the species had not been common in the pre-Columbian period, but their numbers grew when devastation of the American Indian population by European diseases led to reduced competition for food. The species went from being one of the most abundant birds in the world during the 19th century to extinction early in the 20th century. At the time, Passenger Pigeons had one of the largest groups or flocks of any animal, second only to the Rocky Mountain locust. Read the rest of the article on Passenger Pigeon on Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.

Passenger pigeons and other extinct or endangered birds posted June 28, 2014 on Archives of Hoosier History Live podcast on Saturdays, noon to 1 p.m. ET on WICR 88.7 FM. Passenger pigeons and Carolina parakeets are long gone from the Hoosier state - as well as everywhere else. In fact, the last wild passenger pigeon was shot in the southeastern Indiana town of Laurel in 1902, according to one of our guests. Not only will Hoosier History Live! explore species of birds that once existed in Indiana, we also will look at some of the 26 bird species considered endangered in the state. Whooping cranes and cerulean warblers are among them. Nelson will be joined by three guests.

Passenger Pigeon published January 21, 2011 on IndianaStateMuseum on YouTube
We are featuring an artifact of the month to share stories that only our curators know about the artifacts in their care. Enjoy listening to these little treasures of history

Birds of America (1923); (Volume 2) an Archive.org- Pearson, T. Gilbert (Thomas Gilbert), 1873-1943. This is Passenger Pigeons on pages 39-46, see Birds of America (1923); Volume 1 and Birds of America (1923); Volume 3 for information on other native birds.

  1. Read The Revival of the Passenger Pigeon? published July 9, 2013 on History.com.
  2. Why the Passenger Pigeon Went Extinct published May-June 2014 on Audubon.org.
  3. Martha, A Cold and Lonely Last Migration by Pamela M. Henson on June 26, 2014 on Smithsonian Institution Archives.
  4. You can see 2 passenger pigeons at the Indiana State Museum from their August 15, 2014 photo Tweet. They also tweeted: DYK? 16 places in Indiana have “pigeon” in their name, most likely referring to the now-extinct passenger pigeon. The term “stool pigeon” came from hunting passenger pigeons, hunters would tie a live bird to a stick or stool. And the last wild passenger pigeon was shot in Laurel, Indiana on April 3, 1902.
  5. 100 Years After Her Death, Martha, the Last Passenger Pigeon, Still Resonates The famed bird now finds itself at the center of a flap over de-extinction by William Souder on Smithsonian.com.
  6. Used for target practice, are they the origin of clay pigeons for target practice?
  7. Flocks that Darken the Heavens: The Passenger Pigeon in Indiana millions of pigeons darkened Indiana skies in the 1870's were seen by the last Hoosiers to see them by Annette Scherber published February 14, 2017 on Indiana Historical Bureaublog.
  8. “Passenger Pigeon Extinction” Indiana State Historical Marker Will Be Dedicated in Metamora, Indiana dedication April 3, 2017 on IN.gov. March 28, 2017 notice on Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook.
  9. See April 3, 2017 photos and discussion of historical marker dedicated for the last verified passenger pigeon shot in the wild near Laurel, Indiana on April 3, 1902 by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook.
  10. More photos posted April 22, 2017 on Indiana State Parks on Facebook.
  11. Billions to none... the extinction of the Passenger Pigeon In Audubon's time there was an estimated 3 billion passenger pigeons. By 1914 the last remaining pigeon would die... on Audubon.org. Why the Passenger Pigeon Went Extinct And whether it can, and should, be brought back to life a century after it disappeared. by Barry Yeoman, posted May-June 2014 in Audubon Magazine.
  12. The epic story of why passenger pigeons became extinct and what that says about our current relationship with the natural world. When Europeans arrived in North America, 25 to 40 percent of the continent's birds were passenger pigeons, traveling in flocks so massive as to block out the sun for hours or even days. The downbeats of their wings would chill the air beneath and create a thundering roar that would drown out all other sound. John James Audubon, impressed by their speed and agility, said a lone passenger pigeon streaking through the forest “passes like a thought.” How prophetic-for although a billion pigeons crossed the skies 80 miles from Toronto in May of 1860, little more than fifty years later passenger pigeons were extinct. The last of the species, Martha, died in captivity at the Cincinnati Zoo on September 1, 1914. Copied from A Feathered River Across the Sky The Passenger Pigeon's Flight to Extinction by Joel Greenberg (Author) at Bloomsbury.com.

1914, November 17 - the Indianapolis Council of Boy Scouts was charted with a membership of 100 boys. From November 17, 2013 on Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook.


1915 Fort Wayne, Indiana, city directory by R.L. Polk & Co. cn Part 1 names through McNulty on Archive.org

1915 Fort Wayne, Indiana, city directory by R.L. Polk & Co. cn Part 2 McNulty through the end on Archive.org.

1915 - Central fields city's first high school football team. From 1910 to 1919: Era of industry Timeline: Decade of development and destruction from the Archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper.

1915 - Governor Samuel M. Ralston created the Indiana Committee on Mental Defectives (ICMD) to determine the services and care afforded to “mental defectives” (diagnosed epileptics, the “feebleminded,” and the insane) throughout the state. At this time, progressive reform and legislation in Indiana focused on dependency, prohibition, and public health, but lawmakers often viewed the care of populations considered mentally defective as burdens, with heavy social and financial costs. The ICMD, then, “appealed to legislators because it offered potential methods to monitor public health efficiently, to decrease dependency scientifically, and to limit alcohol consumption.”
One of the ICMD’s goals was to survey the entire state by conducting interviews, administering intelligence tests, and assessing “mental ability.” The committee recruited trained field workers from the Eugenics Record Office in Cold Spring Harbor, New York, a research institution for eugenics and hereditary research, and from the Training School at Vineland, New Jersey, dedicated to the education of individuals with developmental disabilities. The commission conducted three surveys, publishing the final reports in 1916, 1918-19, and 1922. The field workers brought onto the project were almost entirely (except for one man) female.
Edna R. Jatho, one of the field workers, trained as an educator who taught incorrigible, feebleminded, and disabled students. She began working with Indiana populations in 1918 on the ICMD’s second survey. Upon its completion, Jatho returned to Philadelphia to pursue a career in the burgeoning field of psychology. She returned to Indiana in 1921 upon invitation to participate in the final survey for the ICMD. Jatho scored tests, wrote reports, and corresponded with the project administrator. She also spoke to prominent groups and organizations, including the Indiana Academy of Science and the Indiana Conference on Mental Hygiene. Jatho’s reports highlighted changing attitudes toward special education during the 1920s, which included the belief that individuals labeled “mentally defective” could still be productive members of society with training, and could even thrive if they engaged with “pedagogy appropriate for their age level and life experience.”
For more, see Kendra Clauser-Roemer’s “‘What Indiana Can Do’: The Influence of Female Field Workers on the Indiana Committee on Mental Defectives, 1915-1924” in the September 2010 issue of the Indiana Magazine of History, available online through IU ScholarWorks at https:// scholarworks.iu.edu/ journals/index.php/imh/ article/view/12559/18789.
Copied from an August 5, 2019 post by Indiana Magazine of History journal in the archives at Indiana University Scholarworks on Facebook. For more on eugenics on our site, see March 9, 1907, 1915, September 11, 1920, February 13, 1974, and Indiana at 200 (72): Sadly, Indiana Pioneered Eugenics posted March 7, 2016.

1915 - The Fort Wayne Friars bring professional football to Fort Wayne. From 1910 to 1919: Era of industry Timeline: Decade of development and destruction from the Archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper.

1915 - page 92 and many other pages of the 1910 Fort Wayne City Directory show the FORT WAYNE-AUBURN AUTO CO. advertising High Grade Automobiles at 205 East Columbia Street. September 29, 2022 Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook posted a photo of The Auburn Garage Auburn Auto Co. Ft. Wayne with two automobiles and three people out front. In reply to a question about the address, they replied: The Fort Wayne Journal-Gazette reported on June 26, 1911 that the Fort Wayne-Auburn Auto company was accepting bids to construct a two-story brick garage on West Washington street, adjoining the Knights of Pythias home on the east side. On August 16, 1914, the Fort Wayne Journal-Gazette reported that the Fort Wayne Overland Auto Company, the distributor for the Auburn automobile, signed a contract making them the distributor for the Overland automobile in the region and they took over the Auburn garage. Luckily, the newspaper also ran a photograph! You can see in the Journal-Gazette photo that the Overland garage listed as occupying the western end of the brick building at Washington Street is the same building as shown in the Auburn photo. The article states that the Overland manager Fred Gaskins began as sale manager for the Auburn company on East Columbia and then later became general manager for the new Auburn garage on West Washington Street. The 1915 Fort Wayne City Directory confirms that the Overland Auto Co was located at “124 Washington blvd. W. shown on page 1235 is Overland Auto at 124 Washington Blvd..

1915, March 24 - Sister Maria Henrica, 82, founder of the St. Joseph Hospital died. Born in Germany in 1833 as Josephine Siwecke, she came from to this country in 1868, then to Hessen Cassel with the Poor Handmaids of Jesus Christ, then came to Fort Wayne with Sisters Rosa and M. Matrona to organize a hospital opening May 4, 1869. After four years she traveled around the country founding hospitals. She was survied by her only relative Sister Maria Bella, eight years younger. Internment in the Catholic Cemetery. From the Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel newspaper.

1915, May 07 World War I: German submarine U-20 sinks RMS Lusitania, killing 1,198 people including 128 Americans. Public reaction to the sinking turns many formerly pro-Germans in the United States against the German Empire. From the Greatest Generations Foundation on Facebook.

1915, June 21 - A miles-long parade of automobiles from Fort Wayne to New Haven marked the dedication of the Fort Wayne section of the Lincoln Highway. From 1910 to 1919: Era of industry Timeline: Decade of development and destruction from the Archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper.

Lincoln Highway Arch
The History Center Facebook photo

1915, June 22 - The Lincoln Highway was dedicated one hundred and five years ago today [October 31, 1913]. Over the next few years, the nation’s first transcontinental highway would stretch from New York to San Francisco, crossing through Indiana and Allen County. Allen County’s section of the highway had its own dedication on June 22, 1915. The Hotel Anthony became a local control station for travelers starting in 1915, charging two dollars a night for a room including a bath. The reinforced concrete Lincoln Highway Bridge (today known as the Harrison Street Bridge), which cost $200,000 to construct, provided safe passage over the St. Mary’s River on the way out of town. In 1928, the Lincoln Highway Association erected concrete posts across the country with the aid of Boy Scouts of America to mark the route. The sections of highway in Allen County were later assigned numbers and became U.S. 30 and U.S. 33. Copied from an October 31, 2018 post by The History Center on Facebook with photos of maps, road construction, archways, Harrison Street Bridge, and more. One comment by Bruce Butgereit on the archway shown above stated: There were two of these illuminated arches in Fort Wayne. They were erected in 1915. According to newspaper accounts, one was at Maumee and Edsall Ave. (when the Lincoln Highway followed Maumee into town (pre-one way streets) and the other was on Wells just south of State. No record has been found as to how long they existed or what happened to them.

Liberty Bell in Fort Wayne, Indiana July 1915
The History Center photo

1915, July 6th - 50,000 person give reception to Liberty Bell, which was drawn along a Pennsylvania Railway sidetrack on Murray Street while en route from Philadelphia to the Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco. From 1910 to 1919: Era of industry Timeline: Decade of development and destruction from the Archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper. July 6, 2019 the The History Center posted a dozen or so photos of the crowds on Facebook. See photo of the Liberty Bell Parade in Fort Wayne Indiana at History Center Digital Collection on the mDON mastodon Digital Object Network. For more information see The Liberty Bell in Fort Wayne by Carmen Doyle published July 9, 2014 in the History Center Notes & Queries blog. The photo The Liberty Bell in Fort Wayne, Indiana, July, 1915 at The Indiana Album was posted March 29, 2018 on the Indiana Album on Facebook. One comment said the Fort Wayne appearance figured prominently in the 1915 Lincoln Highway dedication film, but because of the explosive film used back then it did not survive.

1915, September 4 - Kiilhsookhkwa (also spelled Kilsoquah) died in Huntington County at the age of 105. According to Fort Wayne's The History Center, she was the granddaughter of Little Turtle. Born in 1810, "she saw unprecedented change in her 105 years of life.  From growing up in a traditional Native woodland culture to the removal of her people from Indiana in 1846 to the industrialization of America, Kiilhsoohkwa experienced a changing of worlds during her lifetime. Throughout her life she spoke only the Miami language and her son Anthony Revarre acted as her interpreter. She and her son were allowed to stay in Indiana because of a resolution passed by Congress in 1850 exempting Miami who held treaty reserves, and their descendants, from removal." Copied from a September 4, 2018 post with an image showing Kiilhsookhkwa and her son in Huntington, Indiana by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook. Learn more here: KIILHSOOHKWA (KILSOQUAH) marker on IN.gov, Kiilhsoohkwa Richardville Revarre and Kil-So-Quah with photos at Find A Grave, Kiilhsoohkwa , says image is from the Smithsonian, at Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.

1915, October 23 - New Harmar school dedication ceremony attended by 10,000. From 1910 to 1919: Era of industry Timeline: Decade of development and destruction from the Archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper.

1915, November 16 - the U.S. Patent Office issued a patent for the Coca-Cola bottle, based on a design by Chapman J. Root, of the Root Glass Company in Terre Haute. The Coca-Cola Company sought a manufacturer to design a "bottle which a person will recognize even when he feels it in the dark." Root's bottle imitated the ridges in a cocoa pod. He made prototypes of the classic bottle out of wood and iron. Copied from a November 16, 2022 post by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook.

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1916 Fort Wayne, Indiana, city directory by R.L. Polk 7 Co. cn on Archive.org

Circuit-rider days in Indiana by Sweet, William Warren, 1881-1959; Publication date 1916; Topics Circuit riders, Methodist Church; Publisher Indianapolis : W. K. Stewart co on Archive.org

1916 - Railroad mileage peaks at 254,000 -- highest ever, past or future. From 1910 to 1919: Era of industry Timeline: Decade of development and destruction from the Archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper.

1916 - Report of the commission on taxation to the governor, 1916 - Indiana. Commission on Taxation an Archive.org.

1916 - Indiana Centennial -  Report of Indiana Centennial commission to the General assembly 1913 an Archive.org

1916 - Poems (1916) - Philley, Anna M. [from old catalog] Archive.org.

1916 - a November 5, 2021 post with photo by Indiana Lincoln Highway Associationon Facebook stated: Odowin Doenges, the Lincoln Highway Kid, walked from Fort Wayne, Indiana to San Francisco and back in 1915 and 1916 with his dog, Bob. Photo courtesy Rick Saaf of the True Fort Wayne Indiana History Group:


1916, January 24 - a Fort Wayne News newspaper article by B. J. Griswold describing the book he was working on The Pictorial History of Fort Wayne, Indiana was requesting assistance getting it printed. His book was published in 1917. From January 24, 1916 post on the original Great Memories and History of Fort Wayne, Indiana page on Facebook.

1916, April 16 - an April 16, 2019 post by The History Center on Facebook stated: In celebration of the state's centennial in 1916, The Journal Gazette solicited proposals in a competition to design Fort Wayne's first flag. The contest was inspired by city council's creation of a flag commission, and the winning design was announced 103 years ago today on April 16, 1916. The winner, Guy P. Drewett, received $50 for his submission of a flag with plain symbolism and two colors. More elaborate flags which received consideration are pictured in the background of an article about the contest. Colors cannot be discerned in the image, but some designs used common symbols and locally-relevant imagery. Stars were popular, as well as the Y-shaped bars. Symbols with historical significance included the head of a bear, possibly symbolizing Indiana's frontier roots; and corn or grain symbolizing Northeast Indiana's agricultural roots. Drewett's design included two stars, symbolizing Fort Wayne's status as "the second city in the state," and a bold Y, representing the confluence of the city's three rivers. To learn more about our first city flag, stop by the History Center to pick up the latest issue of the Old Fort News. #sociallyhistory

1916, June 1 - Telephone Directory- The Home Telephone & Telegraph Company

Telephone directory, Fort Wayne, Indiana Publication date 1916 on Archive.org

The glorious gateway of the West : an historic pageant of the story of Fort Wayne, commemorating the one hundredth anniversary of Indiana's admission to the sisterhood of states by Rice, Wallace de Groot Cecil, 1859-; Goodman, Kenneth Sawyer, Publication date 1916 on Archive.org

1916, June 4 - The Fort Wayne Centennial Pageant at Reservoir Park is recalled in a 72 page booklet called Glorious Gateway of the West Historical Pageant Indiana's Centennial Celebration Fort Wayne, Indiana June, 1916. Photos from the Allen County-Fort Wayne Historical Society are on the History Center Digital Collection on the mDON mastodon Digital Object Network. A week-long celebration with a historical pageant, concerts and a special visit by former President William Howard Taft included The Journal Gazette newspaper flag design contest. Read more including links to Newspaper.com images of 1916 newspapers and a story about the winner Guy Drewett whose slogan was Buy it from the GUY that DREW IT - Guy Drewett, designer of the Fort Wayne Flag was in The history behind Fort Wayne's flag on Flag Day Flag created during Indiana Centennial celebration in 1916 by Jaclyn Goldsborough published June 14, 2014 in The News-Sentinel newspaper. Yes, Fort Wayne has a flag! by Carmen Doyle published May 7, 2014 in History Center Notes & Queries blog. February 20, 2015 discussion on the original Great Memories and History of Fort Wayne, Indiana page on Facebook. Indiana's Centennial Celebration 1916 About this collection In 1916 Indiana commemorated its one hundredth anniversary of admission to the Union as the nineteenth state. Backed by efforts of the newly created Indiana Historical Commission and the work of thousands of volunteers, the centennial observance saw the establishment of state parks, the creation of permanent memorials in numerous communities, the publication of historical volumes, local production of pageants, and an overall awakening of interest in the history of the Hoosier State's heritage. At We Do History online digital collection by the Indiana Historical Society.

This video was posted June 4, 2018 by The History Centeron Facebook. CENTENNIAL CELEBRATIONS AROUND THE STATE on IN.govhas a copy of the 1916 brochure and states the following events were depicted in the pageant:

  • French trappers trading with the Indians
  • Fort Miami at the end of the French-Indian War
  • The Eve of the Battle of Fallen Timbers
  • The dedication of Fort Wayne and renaming of Fort Miami
  • War of 1812
  • Arrival of William Henry Harrison
  • Decommission of the Fort
  • Canal Building
  • The Civil War
The History Center Facebook photo
The History Center Facebook photo

1916, June 5-10 - a photo of Fort Wayne's Indiana Centennial Celebration posted April 16, 2019 by The History Centeron Facebook is shown on the right. A similar newspaper photo was posted July 6, 2017 on the original Great Memories and History of Fort Wayne, Indiana page on Facebook and July 13, 2017 on You are positively from Fort Wayne, if you remember... Archived group on Facebook.

1916, June 9 - as part of the Centennial celebration, the Mary Penrose Wayne Chapter of Fort Wayne unveiled a memorial marker in the park strip at the foot of Dearborn Street in the Lakeside neighborhood. It was to mark the Harmar Ford battlefield in commeration of the American soldiers who lost their lives at this ford along the Maumee River, when Chief Little Turtle defeated the troops under the command of General Josiah Harmar October 22, 1790. See Google map Street view. See April 5, 2017 photo by RiverFrontFW on Instagram. The inscription:

To the Memory of Major John Wyllys
And His Brave Soldiers Who
Were Killed Near this Spot
In The Battle of
Harmar's Ford
Oct. 22, 1790
With the Indians Under
Chief Little Turtle
Erected by Mary Penrose Wayne Chapter, D.A.R. in the centennial year 1916.

Read more on page 86 in United States Congressional serial set, Issue 7119, also page 86 in different titled Report of the National Society of the Daughters of the ..., Volumes 18-20. See photo posted on Harmers Ford Burial Site and Maj John Palsgrave Wyllys pages on Find A Grave. See map location at The Battle of Harmar's Ford on the Historical Marker Project which includes links to other nearby markers.

The pictorial history of Fort Wayne, Indiana : a review of two centuries of occupation of the region about the head of the Maumee River by Griswold, B. J. (Bert Joseph), 1873-1927; Taylor, Samuel R., Mrs, Publication date 1917 on Archive.org.

Indiana's Centennial starts on page 555 in The Pictorial History of Fort Wayne, Indiana: A Review of Two ..., Volume 1 by Bert Joseph Griswold, Mrs. Samuel R. Taylor with information on the marker to the Memory of Major John Wyllys on page 558 shown above.

1916 June 9 inland waterway newspaper article
Newspaper image

1916, June 9 - newspaper article posted March 29, 2019 by Mitch Harper on Twitter. At one time, it was proposed to channelize the #MaumeeRiver from #Toledo to #FortWayne. Early in the 20th Century it was even proposed the waterway extend to Chicago for passage of #GreatLakes ships. The environmentally unsound idea did not meet with favor in 1916. However . . . For more read The Toledo to Chicago Canal. A Dream Never Dug by Lou Herbert published November 17, 2014 in the Toldeo Gazette WordPress blog.

1916, June 10 - video of Fort Wayne's celebration parade of the 1916 Indiana Centennial including the debut of the Fort Wayne flag that may look a little different than ours does today was posted June 10, 2016 by The History Center on Facebook.

1916, July 8 - Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel mentions the Tuberculosis Hospital is called Fort Recovery.

1916, July 11 - race horse Dan Patch died at the age of 20. One of the most famous horses in history, he was born in Oxford, Indiana, and as a pacer broke world speed records at least 14 times in the early 1900s. Read more on Dan Patch at Indiana Historical Bureau.

1916, July 22 - Hoosier poet James Whitcomb Riley suffers fatal stroke. See Retro Indy: James Whitcomb Riley published July 22, 2015 in the IndyStar newspaper.

1916, November 6 - the Elex Club was founded by plant superintendent E.A. Barnes for a group of women employed by General Electric. Today, there's a bench memorial dedicated to the Elex Club and its trailblazers next to our campus in McCulloch Park. Copied from a November 6, 2022 post by Electric Works on Facebook.

1916, November 7 - suffragist Jeannette Rankin becomes first U.S. congresswoman.

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1917 - Fort Wayne City hospital renamed Hope Methodist Hospital at new location on West Lewis and Harrison Streets.

1917 - Nature lovers' poems (1917) - Mehl, Amos K Archive.org.

1917 - The pictorial history of Fort Wayne, Indiana : a review of two centuries of occupation of the region about the head of the Maumee River (Volume 1) - 1917, Griswold, B. J. (Bert Joseph), 1873-1927 Archive.org.

1917 - The pictorial history of Fort Wayne, Indiana : a review of two centuries of occupation of the region about the head of the Maumee River (Volume 2) - 1917, Griswold, B. J. (Bert Joseph), 1873-1927 Archive.org.

1917 - The Round Table : Fort Wayne, Indiana by Round Table (Fort Wayne, Ind.) "Organized 1915." Announcement of programs and officers of the club on Archive.org

1917, Summer - Marion County, Indiana's first girl scout troop came only 5 years after 1912 when "Juliette Low establishes the American Girl Guides in Savannah, Georgia later known as the Girl Scouts. From March 12, 2012 post Summer memories of Girl Scouting in 1919, now online January 29, 2013 Smithsonian National Museum of American History blog.

1917, January 22 - a letter reached the Allen County Chapter House formally decreeing them a Chapter of the American Red Cross. Read their history The American Red Cross: A Light That Never Fades June 1, 2013 by Jamie Black on the American Red Cross of Indiana blog.

1917, February 3 - President Woodrow Wilson announces the break in official relations with Germany before Congress. See Today's Document at The National Archives.

1917, February 5 - 1917 Immigration Act (An act to regulate the immigration of aliens to, and the residence of aliens in, the United States) at The University of Washington-Bothell Library.

1917  Fort Wayne Journal Gazette image
clipping image
  1917, March 18 - Annual Report of the Fort Wayne Park Board - St. Joe Dam for boating and a park, First Swimming Pool at Lawton Park, Planning for the Anthony Wayne Equestrian Statue at Hayden Park fronting the Lincoln Highway, Johnny Appleseed monument at Swinney Park, Lakeside monument to John Wyllys and brave soldiers killed at Harmar's Ford, Perry Randall monument at Swinney Park, and plan to build a Lincoln cabin replica. Clipped from The Fort Wayne Journal-Gazette18 Mar 1917, Sunday, page 7. Clipped by StanFollisFW on 19 Feb 2022.

1917, April - printed edition of the Constitution of Indiana and of the United States at The Genealogy Center.

1917, April 2 - President Woodrow Wilson addressed a joint session of Congress to ask for a declaration of war against Germany. Congress granted the request on April 6 and launched the United States into what was known as The Great War and later, World War I. Photos and discusison April 2, 2017 on Today's Document on Facebook.

1917, April 6 - the United States declared war on Germany officially entering World War I. Over 150,000 people from Indiana answered the call to serve when the United States entered the Great War. Posted November 16, 2017 on Indiana State Library on Facebook. The brown, doughy color of enlisted soldier's uniforms may have led to them being referred to as ʺdoughboys.ʺ The Price of Freedom: Americans At War World War I at the Smithsonian Nationa Museum of American History Believing Center. See the Joint Resolution at Today's Document posted April 6, 2017 on Facebook. See America Enters the Great War by Mitchell Yockelson published in Spring 2017 by The National Archives.

1917, May 18 - the Selective Service Act passed authorizing the president to increase the military establishment of the United States. Every male living within the United States between the ages of eighteen and forty-five was required to register for the draft.

1917, May 31 - Indiana State Flag - The blue and gold state banner was adopted by the 1917 General Assembly as part of the commemoration of the state's 1916 Centennial celebration, after a competition sponsored by the Daughters of the American Revolution. The winning design was by Paul Hadley of Mooresville, Indiana. The name was changed to flag by the 1955 General Assembly. The dimensions were changed to standard usage. The torch stands for liberty and enlightenment; the rays represent their far-reaching influence. The thirteen stars in a circle represent the original thirteen states; the five stars in the circle represent the next five states; the large star is Indiana, the nineteenth state. The state flag is always displayed on the observer's right of the American flag. See Indiana State Flag Indiana Code: IC 1-2-2-1 and “A Permanent Emblem of Its Own:” The Indiana State Flag & Its Designer by the Indiana Historical Bureau. Read more about the Indiana State Bannerand Paul Hadley, Designer of the Indiana State Flag (1916, adopted 1917) and Mooresvillian posted April 7, 2010 (2014 update) on the Mooresville Public Library Indiana Room blog.

1917, June 15 - lawmakers passed the Espionage Act

1917, July 20 - The WWI Draft lottery went into operation. World War I Draft Registration Cards at The National Archives and at Fold3.

1917, October 26 - the Indiana Supreme Court ruled the state's woman's suffrage law unconstitutional. The court argued that the question of women's suffrage must be left to a constitutional change by the people, rather than by a law from the General Assembly. Three years later, in 1920, Indiana ratified the Nineteenth Amendment to the US Constitution that guaranteed women's suffrage. Read more about the decision in Hoosier State Chronicles: http://bit.ly/2gM1BvM. Posted October 26, 2017 by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook

1917, November 16 - Presidential Proclamation of November 16, 1917, registration of “[a]ll alien enemies,” women included, was required. ... in response to ... Section 4067 of the U.S. Revised Statutes, in effect when the United States entered World War I, provided that “all natives, citizens, denizens, or subjects of a hostile nation or government, being males of the age of fourteen years and upwards, who shall be within the United States, and not actually naturalized, shall be liable to be apprehended, restrained, secured, and removed as alien enemies.” Quotes copied from The forms of 1918: Hoosier-style posted on May 21, 2015 by Judy G. Russell on her blog The Legal Genealogist blog. An Index is online for Genealogical Records of German Families of Allen County, Indiana, 1918 Source: Bloomfield, Virginia F. Jordan. Genealogical Records of German Families in Allen County, Indiana, 1918. Fort Wayne, IN: Fort Wayne Public Library, 1974 on The Genealogy Center web site. The Alien Enemies Act of 1917 A disturbing chapter in the history of Allen County nearly wiped out the city’s rich German heritage by Jim Sack published August 8, 2016 on Fort Wayne Reader. America's long history of restricting immigrants an Opinion published February 5, 2017 on Philly.com.

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Fort Wayne, Indiana, city directory 1918, part 1

Fort Wayne, Indiana, city directory 1918, part 2

1918 - First three-color traffic light installed in New York City. From 1910 to 1919: Era of industry Timeline: Decade of development and destruction from the Archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper.

1918, January 12 - 24° the lowest recorded temperature in Fort Wayne. From Fort Wayne Indiana Climate at the National Weather Service Weather.gov. Storms and cold caused four days of “unprecedented suffering,” according to The News-Sentinel, and it could have been worse if the city's fuel supplies hadn't been replenished by the arrival of  20 rail cars of coal on the morning of Jan. 16. Copied from The cold old days published February 2, 2019 in The Journal Gazette newspaper. See The lowest temperature ever recorded in Fort Wayne, Indiana was -24 °F which occurred on January 12, 1918.

1918, January 27 - photograph labeled The automatic one man farm tractor plowing Liberty Gardens at Fort Wayne, Indiana - fall of 1918 manufactured by the Automatic Corporation, Fort Wayne, Indianafrom The National Archives was shared October 3, 2022 on True Fort Wayne Indiana History on Facebook. Comment says Liberty Gardens was in Waynedale, near Liberty and Gardenview Drives.

Extinction in Two Acts: The Life and Death of the Carolina Parakeet video posted May 10, 2021 by New York City Audubon on YouTube
On Thursday, May 6th, NYC Audubon's new Director of Conservation and Science Dr. Kevin Burgio gave a virtual talk highlighting his research on the extinction of the Carolina Parakeet. America's only endemic parrot, the Carolina Parakeet went from being widespread at around 1800, when John J. Audubon first noted a decline, to being isolated into small, remnant populations by 1900. These iconic birds hung on until the 1930s or 1940s, before blinking out entirely. Despite all of the research on this species, especially over the last 50 years, there is no still clear explanation for their loss.

Carolina Parakeet
Wikimedia Commons image

1918, February 21 - the last Carolina Parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensis) died in captivity at the Cincinnati Zoo. It was the only parrot species native to the eastern United States. It was found from southern New York and Wisconsin to the Gulf of Mexico, and lived in old forests along rivers. The Carolina Parakeet is believed to have died out because of a number of different threats. Habitat destruction was a large part since they were beneficial to farmers eating cocklburs, but were also hunted by some, their brightly covered feathers were used in womens hats, but the most likely cause was death due to poultry disease. From Carolina Parakeet on Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Outside of the breeding season the parakeet formed large, noisy flocks that fed on cultivated fruit, tore apart apples to get at the seeds, and ate corn and other grain crops. It was therefore considered a serious agricultural pest and was slaughtered in huge numbers by wrathful farmers. Copied from Carolina Parakeet: Removal of a “Menace” posted April 15, 2008 by The Cornell Lab at AllAboutBirds.org at Cornell University. The last Carolina Parakeet The Carolina Parakeet was the only parrot species native to the Eastern U.S. at Audobon.org. Why Did the Carolina Parakeet Go Extinct? It hasn’t been seen for a century. But will the bird species ever fly again? by Ben Crair posted May 2018 and The Extinction of This U.S. Parrot Was Quick and Driven by Humans A new study sequenced the genome of the Carolina parakeet, once the only parrot native to the eastern part of the country by Brigit Katz Correspondent posted December 13, 2019 both on smithsonianmag.com.

John Parsons, a 23-year-old Virginian, captured much of the essence of pristine Indiana's wildness when he recorded his impressions of the Wabash River country in his diary A Tour through Indiana in 1840: The river rolled its silver current along the 'edge of the plain, which was besprinkled with wild flowers of every rich and varied tint, intermingled with tall grass that nodded in the passing breeze .... The forest rang continually with the songs of the birds and among them I noted particularly, because of their strangeness, the sandhill crane and the Carolina parroquet. The parroquets are beautiful birds, their plumage is green, except the neck, which is yellow, and the head is red. When flying, this bird utters a shrill but cheerful and pleasant note and the flash of its golden and green plumage in the sunlight is indescribably beautiful in its tropical suggestion. Copied from The Wildlife section in the essay called Perspective: The Indiana that Was by Marion T. Jackson published in the book The Natural Heritage of Indiana, copyright 1997, Indiana University Press and printed on the website The Inspiration for the Natural Heritage of Indiana Project.

1918, March 11 - On the morning of March 11, 1918, Private Albert Gitchell reported to the infirmary with complaints of a "bad cold." By noon, over 100 men at the military camp were suffering from the same sickness. These were the first signs of the 1918 influenza pandemic. Copied from a March 11, 2019 post by American Experience on Facebook. Read more about what happened at Fort Riley, Kansas in The First Wave an INFLUENZA 1918 ARTICLE at American Experience.

1918, April 23 - Fort Wayne native 1st Lt. Paul Frank Baer of the U.S. Army Air Service got a fifth kill of an enemy pilot in World War I, which qualified him as the second American flying ace. He became the first Hoosier to do so. Copied from an April 23, 2019 post by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebookbased on 23 April 1918 on ThisDayInAviation.com.

1918, May 16 - The Sedition Act was signed into law establishing penalties for speaking against American institutions.

1918, May 31 - the German American National Bank became Lincoln National Bank from Lincoln Bank Tower on Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.

1918, March 31 - Daylight Saving Time went into effect in the United States for the first time on this date.

1918, April 2 - Indiana prohibition law went into effect at midnight, nearly two years before the 18th Amendment, ratified by Indiana on January 14, 1919, made it illegal to produce, transport, and sell alcohol in the United States. Over 3,500 bars and taverns ceased the sale of alcohol. The state ratified the national prohibition amendment the following January. Learn more at PROHIBITION AND TEMPERENCE at the Indiana State Library. Since the consumption of alcohol was not actually illegal, the customers of speakeasies were rarely arrested during raids. #ISMSpirits October 1, 2014 tweet by Indiana State Museum on Twitter. See photo posted January 14, 2016 by Indiana 2016 on Twitter and Facebook. Photos April 2, 2017 and discussion on Indiana Bicentennial Commission on Facebook.and their link Essay The Road to Prohibition in Indiana via the Indiana Historical Society on Facebook. See photo posted April 2, 2018 by Indiana Historical Bureauon Twitter. Prohibition would end December 5, 1933.

1918, May 16 - U.S. Congress passed the Sedition Act, designed to protect America in World War I. The Act harshly penalized those who insulted the U.S. government, Constitution, flag, and/or military, as well as anyone making false statements that interfered with war. It was orchestrated largely by A. Mitchell Palmer, the United States attorney general under President Woodrow Wilson. Read more on May 16, 2016 Facebook post by Indiana Historical Bureau.

1918, June - Gossip That Costs Human Lives! was the back-cover announcement of Hearst Magazine's June 1918 issue about German propaganda posted November 29, 2017 by the National Archives at Philadelphia on Facebook.

1918, July 4 - the Anthony Wayne Statue was dedicated in Hayden Park.

1918 flu poster
Indiana Historical Bureau image

1918, September 26 - the Indianapolis News reported the first case of Spanish Influenza at military training detachments in and around Indianapolis. The city would be infected with over 6,000 cases of the flu that swept the globe during World War I. With a makeshift hospital, outfitted with 300 beds, Fort Benjamin Harrison cared for over 3,000 patients. Indianapolis leaders presented a united front in halting the flu's spread, shop and theater owners complied despite personal loss, and men and women volunteered their services at risk to their own lives. From this first report until the end of November, Indiana lost 3,266 Hoosiers to the illness.  Copied from a September 26, 2018 post with an image of an Indiana State Board of Health influenza poster by the Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook. See more about Influenza.

1918, October 1 - a newspaper article says Fireman William Rudolph Hilgeman U.S. Navy was Fort Wayne's first victim of the Spanish Influenza while at the Great Lakes naval training station. He was laid to rest in Lindenwood Cemetery with full military honors. See more about Influenza.

1918 flue poster
Indiana Historical Bureau image

1918, October 7 - due to an influenza epidemic, the Indiana Board of Health issued an order banning all public gatherings in the state until October 20, 1918. By the end of November, Indiana had lost 3,266 residents to the disease. However, according to the University of Michigan Center for the History of Medicine, Indianapolis "had an epidemic death rate of 290 per 100,000 people, one of the lowest in the nation," due to “how well Indianapolis as well as state officials worked together to implement community mitigation measures against influenza.” Copied from an October 7, 2018 post by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook. Learn more about the influenza epidemic in Indianapolis here: War, Plague, and Courage: Spanish Influenza at Fort Benjamin Harrison & Indianapolison the Indiana History Blog by the Indiana Historical Bureau. See more about Influenza.

1918, October 26 - state health officials believed that the worst of the 1918 influenza epidemic was over. There were an estimated 350,000 cases resulting in over 10,000 deaths. All public gatherings were banned during the month. For information, documents, and photos about the influenza epidemic on a national and international level, see The Influenza Epidemic of 1918 on Archives.gov or 1918 Influenza Epidemic in Indiana on Indiana.gov. Copied October 26, 2013 from Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook.

1918, November 11 - on "the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month" in 1918: World War I ends when Germany signs the Armistice in Paris. For more see Topics in Chronicling America - World War I Armistice on The Library of Congress or World War I on The Price of Freedom: Americans at War on Smithsonian National Museum of American History blog. This Day in History, November 11, 1918: World War I Ends 2.5 minute YouTube video published November 11, 2014 by American Battle Monuments Commission.

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Main Street in 1919
Main Street in 1919
True Fort Wayne Indiana History photo

1919 - Fort Wayne Caseys professional basketball team formed. From 1910 to 1919: Era of industry Timeline: Decade of development and destruction from the Archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper.

1919 - future US President Dwight D. Eisenhower skinny-dipped in Lawton Park! A Lieutenant Colonel in the 1919 Transcontinental Motor Transport Corps Convoy they followed the Lincoln Highway from Washington, D.C. to San Francisco testing military equipment, and procedures for cross-country travel. On a warm night in July, the group camped for the night in Fort Wayne's Lawton Park. Few of them had packed swimsuits. Paraphrased from Riverfront Fort Wayne FAQs! Based on the History timeline of the Fort Wayne-Allen County Department of Health (http://www.allencountyhealth.com/about-us/history/) that was probably not a wise idea then, and certainly not by our standards for health now! 

1919 - Construction began in Memorial Park in 1919 with the renovation of an extant two-story brick house for use as a refectory and included an apartment for the park caretaker’s family. The structure is identified on the Jaenicke plan as “Rest House”. The commemorative landscape began to take form with the initial planting of the memorial grove. Other work accomplished that year included the removal of two or more extant barns and the addition of two tennis courts, a ball diamond and a drinking fountain. 6 The playground was completed the following year, and a cannon taken during the war was placed in the park (its location was not identified) In 1921 an extensive planting effort was undertaken, when 1,500 trees were planted in the park in an attempt to provide shade “as soon as possible for the otherwise bare grounds”. Construction on park drives was underway in 1923, when the playground was enlarged and put under supervision. By 1923 Memorial Park had established itself as a popular picnicking location. Copied from pages I.2 and I.3 in MEMORIAL PARK Cultural Landscape Report History, Existing Conditions, Analysis & Rehabilitation Plan with photos, drawings and more at FortWayneParks.org. The park is now 42 acres. History: Memorial Park is a tribute to the men and women of Fort Wayne and Allen County who gave their lives in service of their country during World War I. The land that was formerly known as the "golf grounds" and that would later be Memorial Park was acquired from Ms. Minnie Hill White on November 29, 1918, only eighteen days after the signing of the armistice that ended the conflict. Known for several beautifully sculpted monuments commemorating various participants and events in the conflict, it also includes a monument to aviation pioneer, originator of skywriting and Fort Wayne resident Art Smith. Smith Field Airport would later be renamed in his honor. Copied from Memorial Park at FortWayneParks.org.

1919, January 14 - Indiana ratifies the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution also called the Prohibition Act. It was passed by Congress December 18, 1917 and ratified January 16, 1919. The ban defined the types of alcoholic beverages prohibited. Private ownership and consumption of alcohol was not illegal. Prohibition ended with the ratification of the 21st Amendment, which repealed the 18th Amendment, ratified on December 5, 1933. The 18th amendment is the only amendment to ever be repealed. Prohibition in the United States on Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopediastates Anti-prohibitionists ("wets") criticized the alcohol ban as an intrusion of mainly rural Protestant ideals on a central aspect of urban, immigrant and Catholic everyday life. The Senate proposed the Eighteenth Amendment on December 18, 1917. Having been approved by 36 states, the 18th Amendment was ratified on January 16, 1919 and effected on January 16, 1920. See photo posted January 14, 2016 by Indiana 2016 on Twitter and Facebook. Similar post January 14, 2019 by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook. A Janaury 14, 2016 post with photos by Indiana Bicentennial Commission on Facebook stated: ON THIS DAY // On January 14, 1919, Indiana ratified the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution. The 18th Amendment prohibited the making, transporting, and selling of alcoholic beverages. But merely outlawing the use and possession of alcohol was not enough for the Indiana branch of the Anti-Saloon League — in 1925, thanks in large part to the lobbying efforts of the League’s influential leader, the Rev. Edward S. Shumaker, the General Assembly passed one of the toughest Prohibition laws in the nation, the Wright “Bone Dry” Law. You can learn more about the prohibition and the temperance movement in Indiana by reading: Prohibition in “Bone Dry” Indiana by The Staff of the Indiana Magazine of History posted December 19, 2011.

200@200 published October 8, 2016 by WANE 15 News on YouTube
History Center Executive Director Todd Pelfrey stopped by First News Saturday shows a homemade still by George Hebner a furnace HVAC businessman.

1919, February 17 - three months after the armistice that ended World War I, the Hoosier State became one of fourteen states to ban the teaching of German to children, a crime punishable by fines and imprisonment. WHEN INDIANA BANNED THE GERMAN LANGUAGE IN 1919 by Stephen J. Taylor published August 26, 2015 in the Indiana Historic Newspaper Digitization, Labor History, World War I on Hoosier State Chronicles Indiana's Digital Historic Newspaper Program.

1919, February 25 - Indiana Governor James P. Goodrich signed into law State Senator Franklin McCray's anti-German language act, which forbade elementary schools from teaching the language. The statute also prohibited correctional schools, parochial schools, and benevolent organizations from teaching German. Indiana became one of fourteen states to ban the teaching of German to children. The legislation was a reflection of the strong anti-German sentiment stemming from World War I. Many Americans considered retention of German language and culture in the midst of war as un-American. During this time, German-language newspapers folded, German names of streets or places changed (e.g Das Deutsche Haus became the Athenaeum), German surnames were Anglicized, churches were pressured to conduct their services in English, and even dachshunds came under attack because of their German origins. Learn more about the anti-German language act here: WHEN INDIANA BANNED THE GERMAN LANGUAGE IN 1919 by Stephen J. Taylor published August 26, 2015 on Hoosier State Chronicles Indiana's Digital Historic Newspaper Program. For more see our German Heritage page.

1919, February 26 - President Woodrow Wilson established the Grand Canyon National Park on this date in 1919, after a 30-year opposition from ranchers, miners, and entrepreneurs. Today, the Grand Canyon National Park covers more than 1,900 square miles; the canyon itself is 277 river miles long, 10 miles wide, and a mile deep. The park receives 5 million visitors every year. From The History Centerquote from 2013 The Writer's Almanac.

1919, February and March -  the Indiana legislature passed two laws banning German from being taught in any public, private or parochial schools. Read more on September 27, 2013 Friday Fact on Indiana Genenealogical Societyon Facebook. The McCray Bill passed in 1919, but was lifted in 1923. Read When Indiana Banned German in 1919 on Hoosier State Chronicles Indiana's Digital Historic Newspaper Program.

1919 - War work of the Fort Wayne chapter of the American Red Cross (1919) - Taylor, Isabella Houghton, Mrs. Archive.org

1919, June 4 - the 19th Amendment granting women the right to vote passes Congress, and ratified on August 18, 1920. A pin, a bracelet, and 5 of our online resources on women's right to vote - pins were given to women who were jailed for picketing the White House for woman suffrage. From March 14, 2013Smithsonian National Museum of American History blog. The 19th Amendment at 100: Sharing the Story by Hilary Parkinson published June 3, 2019 on Pieces of History a blog of the National Archives.

1919, October 28 - the Senate approved the National Prohibition Act, aka the Volstead Act, aka the 18th Amendment that prohibited the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic liquors. It remained in effect until repealed by the 21st Amendment in 1933.

1919, November 11 - President Woodrow Wilson established Armistice Day to commemorate the end of World War I. Armistice Day was made a national holiday in 1938, and in 1954 was changed to VeteransDay to honor all American veterans of all wars. Veterans Day The Allied powers signed a ceasefire agreement with Germany at Compiégne, France, at 11:00 a.m. on November 11, 1918, bringing the war now known as World War I to a close. President Wilson proclaimed the first Armistice Day the following year on November 11, 1919, with these words:“To us in America, the reflections of Armistice Day will be filled with solemn pride in the heroism of those who died in the country’s service and with gratitude for the victory, both because of the thing from which it has freed us and because of the opportunity it has given America to show her sympathy with peace and justice in the councils of the nations…” Originally, the celebration included parades and public meetings following a two-minute suspension of business at 11:00 a.m. Copied from Today in History - November 11 at The Library of Congress

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