1790-1799 Timeline of Allen County, Indiana

1791 - 1792 - 1793 - 1794 - 1795 - 1796 - 1798 - 1799


Fort Wayne in 1790 by Hay, HenryQuaife, Milo Milton, 1880-1959 ed, 1955 on Archive.org

200@200: 1790 musket posted Februry 6, 2016 by WANE 15 News on YouTube.
The History Center's Todd Pelfrey joins First News to talk about this amazing piece of Fort Wayne history.

1790, January 8 - On this day in Indiana history, 1790, General Arthur St. Clair and party reach the Falls of the Ohio on their tour of the western country. Posted January 8, 2013 by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook.

1790, March 1 - the President signed the Enumeration Act into law from Congress authorizing the first U.S. Census and every ten years. Congress Counts: History of the US Census on The National Archives Prologue: Pieces of History blog. See our Census page.

March 1, 2023 post by U.S. Census Bureau on Facebook:

#OnThisDayInHistory the 1790 Census Act was signed into law. ✒️

The nation’s first census was taken later that year in August. Upon completing the count, U.S. Marshals forwarded the data for 3,929,214 people to the Secretary of State.

Check out more 1790 Census data and other historical facts: Census 1790 Fast Facts

#CensusHistory #OnThisDay #OTD


See our Census page.

1790, March 26

March 26, 2023 post by A Daily Dose of History on Facebook:

The original U.S. Naturalization Act was enacted on this date in 1790. It allowed immigrants to become naturalized citizens after a residency of two years, provided they were “free white persons of good character.” In 1795 the residency requirement was raised to five years and in 1798 it was increased to 14 years, before being lowered back to five years in 1802.

In 1870 the law was changed to make African immigrants eligible for naturalization and in the early 20th century Asian immigrants became eligible, although there were severe restrictions on immigration from China, including a complete ban from 1882 to 1943.

Prior to 1922 immigrants from any country in the Western Hemisphere had only a one-year residency requirement. In 1922 that preferential status was eliminated, so that today there is a five-year residency requirement for all prospective citizens.

The photo is of naturalized citizens taking the Oath of Allegiance at Monticello in 2018.

1790, 17 April - Benjamin Franklin died.  He bequeaths his walking stick to George Washington in his will.

1790, May 17 - Congress passed HR 43, the Copyright Act.

1790, May 29 - Rhode Island became the last of the “13 Original Colonies” admitted to the U.S.

1790, June 20 - Winthrop Sargent, Secretary of Northwest Territory, organized the first Indiana county, Knox County. It covered a huge area, embracing parts of Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin. The county was named after Major General Henry Knox, U.S. Secretary of War. Many of the county's original records, some dating from the 1790's, can be found at the McGrady-Brockman House in Knox County. Copied from a June 20, 2016 Facebook post by the Indiana Bicentennial Commission on Facebook.

June 20, 2017 post by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook:

Happy Birthday Knox County!

On June 20, 1790, Secretary of the Northwest Territory Winthrop Sargent, acting in the absence of Governor Arthur St. Clair, wrote:

"I thought proper to order & direct, that all & singular the Lands lying &being within the following Boundaries Viz: Beginning at the standing Stone Forks of the Great Miami River, & down the said River to its Confluence with the Ohio River, thence with the Ohio River to the small Stream or Rivulet above Fort Massac—thence with the Eastern Boundary Line of St Clair County to the Mouth of the Little Michilmakinac, thence up the Illinois River to the Forks or Confluence of the Thekiki & Chikago, thence by a Line to be drawn due North to the Boundary Line of the Territory of the United States, & so far Easterly upon said Boundary Line, as that a due South Line may be drawn to the Place of Beginning — Should be a County by the Name & Style of the County of Knox."

At the time of its formation, Knox County included all of what became Indiana, large parts of present-day Michigan and Illinois, as well as parts of Wisconsin and Ohio. Twelve proclamations and laws over many years slowly reduced the county in area to its present size by 1842-43.

1790, July 16 - George Washington selects a diamond-shaped parcel of land along the Potomac River carved from parts of Maryland‬ and Virginia as the site for the nation’s capital, known today as Washington, D.C. Act of July 16, 1790 (D.C. Residency Act), 1 STAT 130, which established the District of Columbia as the seat of government on Today's Document.

1790, August 2 - U.S. Marshals began conducting the United States’ first census. See our Census pages. As directed by the census act signed by President George Washington on March 1, 1790, the census collected the name of the head of each family and the number and age of White males and number of White females, all other free persons, and slaves. At the conclusion of the enumeration, the U.S. Marshals reported to the Secretary of State and President that the population of the nation (which at that time consisted of the 13 original states, the Southwest Territory (Tennessee) and the districts of Kentucky, Maine, and Vermont) was 3,929,214. Learn more about the 1790 Census at http://www.census.gov/ history Copied from a August 2, 2018 post by United States Census Bureau on Facebook.

1790, October 19 - northwest of Fort Wayne - Chief Little Turtle thoroughly destroys a US detachment under John Hardin. This defeat is a prelude to Harmar’s Defeat at the ruins of Kekionga in present-day downtown Fort Wayne. Copied from an October 19, 2022 post by Military History of Fort Wayne on Facebook.

It is Tuesday, October 19,, 1790. Commanding General Josiah Harmar is now fully informed of the previous days losses...

Posted by Military History of Fort Wayne on Thursday, October 21, 2021

Thursday, October 21, 2021 post by Military History of Fort Wayne on Facebook:

It is Tuesday, October 19,, 1790.

Commanding General Josiah Harmar is now fully informed of the previous days losses under John Hardin. Harmar now determines to send a second detachment to reconnoiter the area north of the Three Rivers.

This second detachment, as with the previous days action, will be unsupported by the main body of Harmar’s Army. This will prove to be a fatal mistake and one Anthony Wayne would learn from in his campaign in 1794.

The new contingent numbers some 300 men, mostly militia, and is placed under the command of Ensign Phillip Hartshorn.

Hartshorn’s command marches north from the site of Kekionga (present day Fort Wayne) following an Indian trace that is likely known today as Coldwater Road.

Somewhere near the present day intersection of Till Road and Coldwater Road, Hartshorn’s command comes under a hot fire once again by warriors under Chief Little Turtle.

As with the Hardin’s defeat less than 24 hours before, the militia are so terror-struck that many do not return fire - instead many drop their arms and flee. It is later said, with some embellishment, that these men won’t stop running until they reach the Ohio River and the relative safety of Kentucky.

Ensign Phillip Hartshorn and 70 of his men are killed and scalped in the ambush… and not necessarily in that order. It is a gruesome scene and this battle will become known as Hartshorn’s Defeat.

Hours later, remaining elements of Hartshorn’s contingent limp back to the main body camped at the ruins of Kekionga. Commanding General Harmar now determines to leave the dead where they lay and begin his retreat back to Fort Washington in Cincinnati.

Having marched several miles south of Kekionga, Harmar’s army again encamps for the night - all under the watchful eyes of Miami, Shawnee and Delaware scouts.

Morale in Harmar’s Army is low.

Some of Harmar’s officers are incensed at the idea of leaving their dead and wounded behind. John Hardin prevails upon Harmar to let him take a larger force back to Kekionga to defeat the native resistance - and north to the site of Hartshorn’s defeat to retrieve the dead.

This sets up the events of October 22, 1790.

On this day in 1790, the Battle of Heller's Corner occurred between a force of militia, army regulars, and cavalry led...

Posted by Indiana Historical Society on Tuesday, October 19, 2021

Tuesday, October 19, 2021 post by the Indiana Historical Society on Facebook:

On this day in 1790, the Battle of Heller's Corner occurred between a force of militia, army regulars, and cavalry led by Col. John Hardin and about 100 Miami led by Chief Little Turtle. Colonel Hardin and his men were part of a force sent by Secretary of War Henry Knox to destroy as many Miami and Shawnee villages and crops as possible. A few miles from the villages of Kekionga (near present-day Fort Wayne), Hardin's men were lured into a swamp and attacked on three sides by the Miami. Though considered an embarrassing defeat by the Americans, the Miami villages and an estimated 20,000 bushels of corn were destroyed.

1790, October 21

October 21, 2022 post by the Military History of Fort Wayne on Facebook:

October 21, 1790 - the remnants of John Hardin's detachment, fresh off of it's defeat at the "Battle of the Pumpkin Fields" continues to wander back to the new army camp at a place called Chillicothe (a native village near Kekionga). Harmar having heard of the defeat kept a 6 lb cannon firing at regular intervals throughout the night so that missing men dispersed by Little Turtle could find their way back.

Casualties from Hardin's Defeat had been high -numbering at least 60 men dead or missing. William Wells would later attest that the natives only suffered 1 killed and 2 wounded.

John Hardin pleaded with General Harmar to let him take a new detachment back to the site of the previous days battle and retrieve his dead. Harmar denied him.

As men continued to wander into camp - including Captain Armstrong who had commanded the regulars, it became clear to Harmar that the militia had behaved shamefully and had fled the battle leaving the Regulars to slaughter.

With the Regulars decimated and many of the remaining Militia refusing to fight, Harmar decided to burn the remaining Indian towns and return to safer environs.

Early on the morning of the 20th, Five Indian villages were put to the torch - ranging in size from twenty to 60 huts. Emormous quantities of corn, beans, pumpkins and hay were also burned - which would lead to terrible starvation among the natives of this area in the winter of 1790-1791.

While procuppied with burning the towns - many native warriors watched, and a few were caught and killed. One warrior, was decapitated and his head put on a spike as a warning for others to keep their distance. Unknown to Harmar's men, atrocities like these would be repaid in full, in short order.

As Harmar prepared to depart for Fort Washington, Colonel Hardin prevailed upon him to send a detachment back to the site of Kekionga and exact some retiribution. Army Scout Daniel Williams reported around 100 warriors were now gathering there.

At first skeptical, Harmar was eventually swayed to the idea of an easy victory over this small number of enemies. This would reflect better on his expedition which thusfar had been an abject failure.

Plans were made and the large detachment was prepared to depart Chillicothe for Kekionga at midnight and commence their attack before dawn on October 22nd.


See our Indian - Native American page.

January 31, 2024 post by The Bones of Kekionga on Facebook:

Myself and friends have not abandoned the search for General Josiah Harmar's October 21st and 22nd, 1790 campsite. A few feet of top soil in a particular part of the farm field had been removed but before we could get to it to medal detect the weather and farming responsibilities led to it being covered back up.

ARCH says the campsite is in the Hessen Cassel area which would take his army back to Cincinnati on an early current highway 27 and 33 route. But I don't think the 1906 DAR marker on Wayne Trace Road and New Haven Avenue and its membership would misdirect us. The farmsite will be reexamined eventually and hopefully more than just musket buck and ball will be found.

As a supplement to the Kekionga book series, a friend of mine and of deceased University of Toledo history professor Robert Ernst turned over to me small versions of 5 historically accurate maps to offer friends of our local history. With the aid of Tom Grant of Historic Old Fort we enlarged them to 16x20. To see them, go to www.jimpickettbooks.com. Click on the menu and the select maps tab.

 I expect to have them with me at sales and presentations. A portion of procedes will go to Loving Shepherd Ministries and the Old Fort organization.

1790, October 22 - The Apple tree is mentioned in older history books. In what is now the Lakeside area, the American Federal Army in combination with the militia regiments from both Pennsylvania and Kentucky were deep in Indian territory for their first battle since the American Revolutionary War. Little Turtle and Miami warriors of other Native American bands in Allen County turn back the American army led by General Josiah Harmar, ambushing one unit led by Colonel John Hardin and then fighting off the main force at Kekionga, also an early name for Fort Wayne. Copied from Millennium milestones in Fort Wayne in the archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper. The Battle of Kekionga in October 1790 was the first battle fought by the United States Army after the War for Independence. The campaign had been ordered by President Washington against the Miami settlement of Kekionga, the center of Indian resistance to U.S. migration across the Ohio River. Read more about The Battle of Kekionga by Tom Castaldi published April 25, 2013 on the History Center Notes & Queries blog or The Battle of Kekionga at ARCH ( Architecture and Community Heritage). See a map of Kekionga (now Fort Wayne) drawn by an officer in General Harmar’s Army on Indiana, Land of the Indians by Ruth Thunderhorse, August 1999 on The Algonquian Confederacy of the Quinnipiac Tribal Council web site.1790 battle reverberates today with new information from old maps, military reports and diaries stored in archives in Washington D.C. and Ottawa, Canada by Mark Helmke published October 22, 2001 in The Journal Gazette newspaper. A historical fiction novella book The Bones of Kekionga released in August 2017 was written by Jim Pickett a retired school teacher who grew up in New Haven, Indiana. August 30, 2018 he posted images of newspaper articles descibing his book on his Facebook page The Bones of Kekionga. Book brings local history to life by Bridgett Hernandez - August 31, 2018 in INFortWayne.com

June 4, 2019 post by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook:

On June 4, 1791, General Charles Scott issued a declaration to the Native People living on the banks of the Wabash River. Scott stated, “The United States have no desire to destroy the red people, although they have the power.” This request for peace from the tribes followed his troops’ attacks on mostly non-combatants, which resulted in the destruction of crops and three Wea and Kickapoo villages near Fort Ouiatenon, including Kethtippecanuck, which was comprised of about 120 dwellings as well as gardens and common spaces.

President George Washington and Secretary of War Henry Knox likely authorized the expedition as retaliation to the failed American offensive known the Battle of Kekionga (also known as Hamar’s Defeat) in 1790 near Fort Wayne. Knox authorized Scott’s expedition “to proceed to the Wea, or Ouiatenon towns of Indians, there to assault the said towns, and the Indians therein, either by surprise, or otherwise, as the nature of the circumstances may admit – sparing all who may cease to resist, and capturing as many as possible, particularly women and children.” Knox continued, stating that Scott’s forces “were not bound by any moral codes of army behavior,” and encouraged him to “combat the Indians according to your own modes of warfare.”

Scott’s force, which was comprised of Kentucky volunteers reportedly killed thirty-two people, and captured and transported approximately fifty-eight women and children to the Falls of the Ohio where they were held as prisoners. According to Scott’s report, his troops only engaged with a few combatants. A diary of a Moravian missionary and a letter from a British trader both refer to the torture and skinning of a Wea chief, contrary to Scott’s claim in his official report that “no act of inhumanity has marked the conduct of the volunteers.”

The image below shows a Kickapoo dwelling, courtesy of the Glossary of Indian Nations

October 24, 2021 post by Military History of Fort Wayne on Facebook:

It is Friday, October 22nd, 1790.

The United States Army under Josiah Harmar is now encamped at one of the Shawnee towns on the Maumee known as Chillicothe – about 8 miles east of Kekionga (present-day Fort Wayne, Indiana).

Upon the advice of his officers, Commanding General Josiah Harmar elects to send a force back to Kekionga to surprise the natives now congregating there. Army Scout Daniel Williams – a former captive - reports that “there are about one hundred and twenty Indians” congregating at the Miami towns at the Headwaters of the Omee (Maumee River).

Harmar places a force of 60 Regulars, 300 militia infantry and 40 cavalry under the overall command of Major John Wyllys. The militia infantry will be commanded by Colonel John Hardin and arranged into battalions under Major Horatio Hall and Major James McMullen. Wyllys will himself lead the force of Regular infantry and the cavalry will be led by Fontaine.

The detachment sets off from Chillicothe at about 1AM on a forced march toward Kekionga. It is a warm Autumn day. The detachment marches in columns of infantry to a point south of the Maumee. There Wyllys gives strict orders to maintain silence until they are upon the native forces at Kekionga. Their goal is complete surprise.

The plan is elaborate – Major Hall will take his battalion and sweep left through what is today downtown Fort Wayne – his troops will pass through the area that will later become Fort Wayne’s current courthouse grounds and Columbia Street. He will cross the St Mary's River at the Pickaway Fork west of where Promenade Park sits today and wait to engage until an attack is made by the other battalions at the Maumee ford. This - in theory - will allow him to cross the St. Joseph River and bring his battalion up behind the defenders at the western boundaries of Kekionga.

Wyllys will ford the Maumee with his 60 Regulars just north of where Harmar and Begue Streets intersect with Liberty Avenue today and directly engage with the enemy at the village of Kekionga. McMullen’s battalion of militia, accompanied by Fontaine’s cavalry will sweep right after the ford and hold the right flank in support of the regulars at the center.

Hall and McMullen have explicit orders to support the regulars at the center once the firing commences. This is a pincer action which is designed to draw the four battalions back together near the intersection of where Delaware Avenue meets St Joseph Blvd today.

William Wells – of Well Street fame, who fought with Little Turtle later recorded that the surprise may have been effective if not for a soldier in Hall’s battalion having taken a shot at a Miami scout somewhere west of Kekionga. This gunfire alerted the War Chiefs. Little Turtle immediately dispatches warriors to engage the troops crossing the Maumee to the South to buy himself time to set up an ambuscade. Blue Jacket and his Shawnee force move toward the sound of gunfire from the east.

It is about 8AM as the battalions of Wyllys, McMullen and Fontaine begin to cross the Maumee, The Miami engage militia on the right flank of the American battalion which causes the militia to briefly halt it’s advance. McMullen’s battalion is slow to come up and they have trouble forming a battalion front in the long thickets.

McMullen’s infantry and Fontaine’s cavalry give chase to smaller groups of natives and leave the regulars unsupported. Major Fontaine commands his cavalry forward and rides up among the Miami and fights fearlessly with a brace of pistols and sword but is killed in his saddle.

As Wyllys’ Regulars come across the Maumee ford a larger contingent of Miami skirmishers open fire from the brush about 70 yards north of the Maumee. The Regulars under Wyllys press forward across the Maumee as the Miami skirmishers fall back drawing the Regulars after them. This is a characteristic tactic by Little Turtle as he and several hundred Miami warriors wait among the trees to the north to support his skirmishers. As the regulars approach the ruins of Kekionga, Little Turtle’s ambuscade is complete and the forest-line erupts with the flash of more than a hundred muskets. The volley has devastating effect on the exposed Regulars. They are being cut to pieces.

John Wyllys is one of the first to fall and later one of the natives is seen wearing Wyllys’ cockaded hat even as the battle rages around him. The fighting is desperate and Wyllys’ Regulars are wildly outnumbered. The opposing forces have closed in on each other and it becomes tomahawk and spear versus bayonet. By the time Hall and McMullen rejoin the center, the regulars are utterly defeated.

Of 60 Regular infantry engaged only a handful survive the day. The US detachment suffers incredible losses. 129 men are killed in action including 14 officers and 94 wounded. The Miami and Shawnee suffer less than 50 casualties – Wells reported less than 15 Miami killed and about 25 wounded.

That evening Harmar keeps his cannons booming east of Fort Wayne so troops can find their way back to the relative safety of his main force. He musters 30 volunteers to march west to protect his retreating army. In the camps of the Miami and Shawnee, Little Turtle and Blue Jacket plot to attack Harmar’s army in retreat to Fort Washington (Cincinnati). This will be a most decisive blow as some 700 Ottawa have just arrived to add to their number. As the War Chiefs plot their attack late into the evening, a singular event occurs. By happenstance, a total eclipse occurs in the evening of October 22nd, 1790, in which the moon appears a deep red color – the eclipse lasts over an hour and 40 minutes. The War Chiefs decide this is a bad omen and cancel their attack plans on the American Army.

On return to Fort Washington, Josiah Harmar will face a Court of Inquiry and eventually be forced into retirement. Little Turtle is now recognized among the War Chiefs as a military mastermind – and the Americans are beginning to recognize that as well.

The Americans call this battle Harmar’s Defeat but the Miami and Shawnee have a different name for it. They call it the Battle of the Pumpkin Fields – this rhetorical flourish references the dozens of scalped American corpses left laying face down in the grass at Kekionga. It reminds them of pumpkins steaming in the summer sun.

The American corpses are never fully retrieved and many years later, sun bleached bones of American soldiers could still be seen along the banks of the Maumee. 

October 22, 2023 post by the Miami Nation of Indians of Indiana on Facebook:

On this Date in 1790, the Battle of Kekionga (also known as Harmar's Defeat) occurred. After Col. John Hardin had experienced defeat at the hands of Chief Little Turtle and the Miami, Gen Josiah Harmar hoped to surprise and engage the Miami as they returned to Kekionga after Harmar's forces had withdrawn from Kekionga. 60 Army regulars, 40 mounted cavalry, and 400 militia would arrive at sunrise at the banks of the Maumee (Omee) river to split into 4 detachments. Two detachments would attack Kekionga across the Maumee river and try to drive the Native American force (the Shawnee, Saux, Lenape, and Odawa had also been returning to Kekionga as well), towards the St. Joseph River (Kekionga and now present day Fort Wayne is located where three rivers meet, the St. Mary, St. Joseph, and the Maumee). However, the 2 detachments moving towards the St. Joseph River would be discovered and shots fired before they were in position. The troops under Maj. Wyllis trying to cross the Maumee River would meet heavy fire from the Native American force, killing many soldiers and militia. Eventually the two detachments crossing from the Maumee River would experience heavy losses and be out maneuvered so they retreated to join the 2 detachments (one under Colonel Hardin) on the banks of the St. Joseph River. The Native American force would continue to attack them from three sides for about three more hours until Hardin, realizing the re-enforcements he thought General Harmar was sending, were never coming (because they were never sent), retreated. 180 of the American force were killed or wounded and it is estimated that 120-150 of the Native American force were killed or wounded. This successful defense of the Miami homelands would help to begin to establish Chief Little Turtle's deserved reputation as a great military leader. Ironically, on this same date in 1794, the city of Fort Wayne, Indiana would be founded on this same area. After his defeat of Native American forces lead by the Shawnee Blue Jacket at Fallen Timbers (near present day Maumee Ohio) , Wayne and the his legion would return to Kekionga and build the fort that would be commissioned on this date in his honor and would be the birth of the city.

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1791, March 3 - Congressional Resolution to Establish a United States Mint. See a printed copy of a Congressional resolution bearing the signature of Secretary of state Thomas Jefferson, and indicating President Washington’s approval, copied from March 3, 2016 post by Today's Document on Facebook.

1791, March 4 - Vermont became the 14th state and the first admitted to the United States after the original 13 Colonies.

1791, April 27 - Samuel Morse was born, he created the Morse Code.

1791, June 4 - General Charles Scott issued a declaration to the indigenous tribes living on the banks of the Wabash River following his troops’ attacks on mostly non-combatants, which resulted in the destruction of crops and three Wea and Kickapoo villages near Fort Ouiatenon. After Scott’s attack, he stated, “The United States have no desire to destroy the red people, although they have the power.” Scott then requested peace from the tribes. Copied from June 4, 2022 post by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook.

1791, November 4: Little Turtle leads Miamis, Potawatomis, Chippewas, Shawnees and others in the most decisive defeat of American forces to this day. They organize at Kekionga and meet Major General Arthur St. Clair's forces near what is now Fort Recovery, Ohio. The dawn attack completely surprises St. Clair's poorly equipped army, which retreats after three hours. From Millennium milestones in Fort Wayne in the 1000 to 1900 in Fort Wayne History Stories About Time Periods in I Remember History online tour of Summit City history from the archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper.

When Americans read or hear about the Indian Wars, they are exposed to the familiar names like Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse, and George Armstrong Custer and his demise at the battle of the Little Big Horn in 1876. Little is known of the worst disaster experienced by the U.S. Army at the hands of Native Americans, which occurred eighty-five years prior to Custer’s last stand. It was a defeat that greatly overshadowed Little Big Horn not only in terms of casualties and brutality, but also in the consequences that resulted from the debacle. The Battle of the Wabash, also known as St. Clair’s Defeat, named after the expedition’s leader, Major General Arthur St. Clair, occurred on 4 November 1791, and was one of the first tests of the fledgling U.S. Army of the Early Republic.

Copied from The Battle of the Wabash: The Forgotten Disaster of the Indian Wars at The Army Historical Foundation.

Also discussed under Miami on Indian Wars Campaigns at the U.S. Army Center of Military History

Destroying Indiana Villages

Destroying Indian villages at the New York Public Library Digital Collections

November 4, 2023 post by Miami Nation of Indians of Indiana on Facebook.

On this date in 1791, The battle known as St. Clair's Defeat (also know as the battle on the Wabash River or The Battle of a Thousand Slain) occurred. Chief Little Turtle along with Shawnee War Chief Blue Jacket and Delaware (Lenape) chief Buckongahelas gave the US Military it's worst defeat ever by a Native American military force. Using strategy and an organized attack at sunrise, Little Turtle and this Native American military force of Miami, Shawnee, Delaware (Lenape), and Potawatomie, would route General Arthur St. Clair's force of about 1000 near the mouth of the Wabash River in Ohio near present day city of Fort Recovery. The Untied States would suffer heavy causalities and losses that left approximate 24 soldiers unhurtS. Becasue of this battle, St. Clair would be removed from his position, Congress would conduct its first ever investigation of the executive branch to determine who on America's side was to blame, and President Washington would create the "Legion of the United States" which would be put under the command of General "Mad" Anthony Wayne.

A similar November 4, 2022 post by Miami Nation of Indians of Indiana on Facebook.

On this day in 1791, a Native American force of about 1000 consisting of Miami, Shawnee, Delaware (Lenape),and Potowatomis handed the United State's military its worst defeat by a Native American force. The battle was started by the Native American force at dawn on the banks of the Wabash River in present day Fort Recovery, Ohio. The Native American Force lead by Chief Little Turtle of the Miami, Blue Jacket of the Shawnee, and Buckongahelas of the Delaware killed about 976 of the US Army force of about 1000 under the Command of General Arthur St. Clair. This successful defense of Miami home lands would be the end of St. Clair's military career, a black eye for and would lead to an investigation of President Washington's administration and the handling of the battle, and help prove the strategic prowess, military might, and measure of the resolve of the Native Americans' that lived in the Old Northwest Territory.

1791, December 15 - the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution known as the Bill of Rights was ratified by three-fourths of the state legislatures on this date.

  1. Bill of Rights one of the three America's Founding Documents at The National Archives
  2. The Bill of Rights on Today in History - December 15 by The Library of Congress.
  3. The Bill of Rights Other titles:1 Stat. 97 First Ten Amendments to U.S. Constitution is a similar but different display of actual documents at The National Archives.
  4. The Bill of Rights did not apply to all Americans—and it wouldn’t for more than 130 years. At the time of its ratification, the “people” referenced in the amendments were understood to be land-owning white men only. Blacks only received equal protection under the law in 1868, and even then it was purely on paper. Women couldn’t vote in all states before 1920, and Native Americans did not achieve full citizenship until 1924. From 8 Things You Should Know About the Bill of Rights by History.com staff published December 10, 2015.
  5. Bill of Rights Day, December 15 with several videos at National Archives News at The National Archives.

December 15, 2022 post by US National Archiveson Facebook:

Join us today, December 15, in celebrating Bill of Rights Day! Ten of the proposed twelve amendments of the Bill of Rights were ratified by three-fourths of the state legislatures on December 15, 1791.

The original Bill of Rights, the first ten amendments to the Constitution, is on permanent display in the National Archives Museum in Washington, DC, alongside our nation’s other founding documents, the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.

Visit our National Archives News Bill of Rights Day page for related programs and online resources.Bill of Rights Day, December 15

Image: Bill of Rights, 1789. Bill of Rights First Ten Amendments to U.S. Constitution


December 15, 2022 post by Today's Documenton Facebook:

Articles 3 through 12 were ratified on 12/15/1791, and became the first ten amendments to the Constitution. Article 2 became the 27th Amendment in 1992!

Bill of Rights First Ten Amendments to U.S. Constitution

December 15, 2023 post by the US National Archives on Facebook:

Today is Bill of Rights Day! Many people have visited the document at the National Archives or have seen it online, but do you know the mystery of who wrote the document?

Archivists weren't sure who wrote the Bill of Rights when the document came to the National Archives in 1938 from the State Department. They knew it was drafted and signed in September of 1789. With the assistance of FBI handwriting experts, they determined it was the handwriting of Wiliam Lambert, an engrossing clerk at the U.S. House of Representatives. On December 15, 1966, the National Archives opened the Bill of Rights exhibit to celebrate Bill of Rights Day. They then disclosed that Lambert had written the document.

Discover more about the Bill of Rights and how this mystery was solved in the Pieces of History blog: Solving the Mystery of the Bill of Rights

#BillOfRightsDay #USHistory #Constitution #HistoricalDocuments

December 15, 2023 post by the National Historical Publications and Records Commission on Facebook:

Happy Bill of Rights Day!

Since its ratification on December 15, 1791, the Bill of Rights has protected our most fundamental rights—such as freedom of speech, protest, and conscience. It has given us the ability to hold our Government accountable and guarantees all of us equal protection under the law. The National Archives has been protecting the parchment on which the Bill of Rights was inscribed since 1938. (Shown here is page one of the Senate Revisions to House-passed Amendments to the Constitution, September 9, 1789, RG 46, Records of the U.S. Senate, National Archives (Bill of Rights)

During the 150th anniversary commemoration in 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued a proclamation dedicating December 15, 1941, as Bill of Rights Day. In his message he referred to the document as “the great American charter of personal liberty and human dignity.”

Visit Founders Online (https://founders.archives.gov) to read what James Madison and the other Founders thought of the need for a Bill of Rights to the Constitution.

December 15, 2023 post by the Library of Virginia of Facebook:

Today we celebrate the nation's Bill of Rights! The Library of Virginia owns one of the twelve surviving original copies of the Bill of Rights. This is the very copy that Congress sent to the Virginia General Assembly for ratification or rejection. Fifteen and a half years after Virginia adopted its own Declaration of Rights, on December 15, 1791, the Commonwealth became the eleventh state to approve the third through twelfth amendments, which thereupon became the first ten amendments to the Constitution, known ever after as the Bill of Rights.

Learn more at The Bill of Rights to the U.S. Constitution, December 15, 1791[ This copy of the Bill of Rights was sent to the Virginia General Assembly in September 1789 for ratification. ]

#BillOfRightsDay #VirginiaHistory #USHistory #humanrights


Following passage of the 1792 Sabbath law, Jewish bakers, grocers, etc., were cited for being “Sabbath breakers” by...

Posted by Library of Virginia on Friday, May 19, 2023

Friday, May 19, 2023 post by the Library of Virginia on Facebook:

Following passage of the 1792 Sabbath law, Jewish bakers, grocers, etc., were cited for being “Sabbath breakers” by local law officials and forced to pay a fine. In celebration of #JewishAmericanHeritageMonth, start here to learn more about religious freedom in this UncommonWealth blog post as two gentlemen from Richmond who refer to themselves as “belonging to the Jewish persuasion” file a petition in 1846 with the General Assembly voicing their objections to this unfair restriction. First Freedom: The Great Sabbath Debate, Part 1

1792, February 20

On this day in 1792, George Washington established the United States Post Office department. An attempt to begin...

Posted by The History Center on Monday, February 20, 2012

On this day in 1792, George Washington established the United States Post Office department. An attempt to begin organized mail delivery in the colonies dates back to 1639 when Richard Fairbanks allowed his Boston tavern to serve as a centralized mail repository. The Post Master General--Benjamin Franklin was our first--was funded in 1775 and Franklin is credited with creating the method of operation that the USPS first used. Our thanks to Writers Almanac for this information.

1792, April 2 - Congress passes Coinage Act, authorizing establishment of the U.S. Mint.

1792, June 1 - Kentucky becomes the 15th state. See Kentucky Resources on Ancestry.com,Family Search Wiki and Facts and symbols at Awesomeamerica.com.

1792, October 13 - the cornerstone of the President’s House, now known as the White House, was laid in the nation’s new capital. George Washington never lived there. From October 13, 2015 post on George Washington's Mount Vernon on Facebook.

October 13, 2023 post by the The Library of Congress on Facebook:

Today in History: cornerstone of the White House is laid in Washington DC, 1792 #otd #tih Cornerstone of the White House Laid

October 13, 2023 post by the Heritage Documentation Programs, NPS on Facebook:


The cornerstone of The White House was laid on October 13, 1792

White House (Sheet 1 of 41)

1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, Northwest

Washington, District of Columbia

Other Title: The White House and President's Park (White House)


See the rest of the Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) documentation of the home and office of the President of the United States in the HABS/HAER/HALS Collection at https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/dc0402/


Conduct your personal search through the HABS/HAER/HALS Collection, the nation's largest archive of historical architectural, engineering, and landscape documentation in The Library of Congress at http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/

#HABSnps #PreservationThroughDocumentation #historichouse #USPresident #whitehouse #historicarchitecture #OTD #habshaerhals #handdrawing #HABSnps #washingtondc


On April 2, 1793, the United States Mint was established in Philadelphia. The mint was erected on the east side of...

Posted by Pennsylvania Trails of History on Tuesday, April 2, 2024

Tuesday, April 2, 2024 post by the Pennsylvania Trails of History on Facebook:

On April 2, 1793, the United States Mint was established in Philadelphia. The mint was erected on the east side of Seventh Street, above Sugar Alley (afterward known as Farmer Street, now Filbert Street). This photo, preserved by the Pennsylvania State #Archives, shows a worker at the mint creating edges on coins. #OnThisDay - www.pastatearchives.com


1794 - Little Turtle advises his allies to seek peace with General Anthony Wayne, whose well-trained army is on its way. He is replaced as war chief. The Native Americans are defeated at Fallen Timbers, near Toledo, Ohio. To consolidate his victory, Wayne marches his army to Kekionga and builds Fort Wayne, dedicated October 22, 1794. Copied from Millennium milestones in Fort Wayne in the archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper.

1794, January 13 - George Washington approves a measure adding two stars and stripes to the American flag, for Vermont and Kentucky. Posted January 13, 2016 by Mount Vernon on Twitter.

1794, March 14 -  Eli Whitney patents his cotton gin. Previously regarded huge numbers of slaves to pick cotton, changed clothing industry. Eli Whitney's Cotton Gin Model at Smithsonian National Museum of American History blog

1794, March 27 - President George Washington and Congress approve the Naval Act, authorizing the establishment of the U.S. Navy, which replaced the Continental Navy that had been disbanded in 1790.

1794, August 20 - Battle of Fallen Timbers. It was a rainy morning on August 20, 1794 at the Battle of Fallen Timbers near Toledo, Ohio. The battle lasted less than one hour. The Native American Indian Alliance banded together to fight against settlers in the Ohio Country, necessitating the intervention of the first U.S. professional military force. The Native Americans were led by Little Turtle (Michikinikwa), Chief of the Myaamia (Miami) Nation, with assistance from Tecumseh; and, Blue Jacket (Weyapiersenwah) of the Shawnee, and warriors of the Myaamia, Shwanee, Lenape (Delaware), Wyandotte, Ottawa, and Ojibwa tribes. The Legion of the United States was led by General "Mad" Anthony Wayne. By the time the battle ended, the Native confederacy had lost around 200 warriors, and General Wayne had lost 33 men. This proved to be a decisive victory for General Wayne and his men, and it led to a signing of the Treaty of Greenville in 1795, which established the Northwest Territory as exclusively U.S. soil. Contrary to assertions that this was "the first victory for the U.S. Army", the force was still known as the Legion of the United States at the time of this battle. The Legion was reduced in size and rechristened the "U.S. Army" in 1796. General Wayne died on December 15 of that year. Copied from an August 20, 2022 post by the General "Mad" Anthony Wayne Organization, Inc on Facebook. This allowed Americans to settle peacefully into Ohio and Indiana from Indiana at 200 (11): ‘Little Turtle’ Led in War and Peace published November 4, 2013 by Andrea Neal on Indiana Policy.org.

August 20, 2023 share by General "Mad" Anthony Wayne Organization, Inc on Facebook:

August 20, 2023 post by Historic Waynesborough on Facebook:

Posted previously on the anniversary of the Battle of Fallen Timbers, but definitely worth repeating.

The Battle of Fallen Timbers, August 20, 1794, has been called the “last battle of the American Revolution” and one of the three most important battles in the development of our nation.

The decisive victory, led by Maj. General Anthony Wayne and the newly formed Legion of the United States over a confederacy of Indian tribes opened the Northwest Territory, allowing for westward expansion.The name, “Fallen Timbers,” comes from the battle amid trees toppled by a tornado just north of the Maumee River in the present-day city of Maumee, Ohio.

Fallen Timbers was the final battle of the Northwest Indian Wars, ending the struggle for dominance in the Old Northwest Territory, 229 years ago today.

Pictured here is the monument at Fallen Timbers Battlefield, a National Historic Landmark. The 10-foot statue depicts Maj. Gen. Anthony Wayne, with a Native American guide to the right and a settler to the left. It is mounted on a 15-foot granite pedestal.

1794, October 15 - the first silver dollars and silver half dollars were delivered. From 1.00 Dollar, Flowing Hair Dollar, 1794 at The National Museum of American History.

1794, October 22 - Fort Wayne was dedicated.

October 22, 2018 post by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook:

On October 22, 1794, Fort Wayne was dedicated.

Following General Anthony Wayne's victory at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, the Legion of the United States under Wayne's command moved into present-day Indiana. Wayne selected a site for a fort at the Miami town of Kekionga.

The site was strategically and militarily located at the confluence of the St. Joseph, Saint Mary's, and Maumee Rivers. Wayne sought to exert American influence and control in the region over the claims of indigenous peoples and the British. Major John F. Hamtramck was placed in command of 100 soldiers stationed at the fort.

Learn more about Fort Wayne here: Anthony Wayne’s fort by ARCH ( Architecture and Community Heritage) which includes a location map from page 138 of Griswold's Pictorial History of Fort Wayne, Indiana.

The image shows "A Reproduction of the Only Existing Original Drawing of Old Fort Wayne Made by Major Whistler in 1816" on page 156 in Griswold's book.

[See our Forts of Fort Wayne page for more information.]

October 22, 2015 post by the Indiana Bicentennial Commission on Facebook:

Happy Birthday to the city of Fort Wayne, Indiana!

Fort Wayne was officially dedicated on October 22, 1794. Construction began on the new fort named for General "Mad" Anthony Wayne at the confluence of the St. Joseph, Saint Mary's, and Maumee Rivers.

You can learn more about General Wayne and the history of Fort Wayne by checking out Historic Fort Wayne. You can also read Richard Battin's fascinating article "Gen. Anthony Wayne helped the nation grow west" here: Gen. Anthony Wayne helped the nation grow west

1794, October 28 - General Anthony Wayne left the fort following an Indian trail, originally from the Maumee River to Cincinnati, taken by General Josiah Harmar's army four years earlier before and after Harmar's defeat by the Indians. The Dar Markers page states the first historical marker dated 1906 marking Wayne Trace was placed October 22, 1907 in Seiling Park, Wayne Trace and New Haven Avenues by the Mary Penrose Wayne Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution. There was a Drive-by History article Monument shows a trace of past with photo of the marker and history by Nancy Vendrely probably published in an October 1994 The Journal Gazette newspaper. Wayne Trace marker on the HMdb.org page shows several photos of the marker and location in the park.

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1795, August 3 - Little Turtle and other chiefs sign the Treaty of Greene Ville, ending their control of the Fort Wayne area. Full-scale settlement begins. Copied from Millennium milestones in Fort Wayne in the archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper. Treaty of Greene Ville at TouringOhio.com. Summer 1795: The Treaty of Greenville creates an uneasy peace by Eric Hemenway, Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians at the National Park Service. The Treaty of Greenville 1795 at the Avalon Project Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy at the Yale Law School Lillian Goldman Law Library. Treaty of Greenville: An Uneasy Peace to the Northwest Indian War by Robert Longley Updated on November 14, 2019 on ThoughtCo.com.For more on the area's earliest hunter-gatherer residents a millennium ago - read PATH TO THE PAST Settlement born of simple beginnings by Connie Haas Zuber of The News-Sentinel newspaper. See Treaty of Greeneville on Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. See our Indians - Native Americans of Allen County, Indiana page.

Treaty of Greene Ville (Greenville, Ohio) by Traveling around Ohio published on May 15, 2016


1796, 14 May - the small pox vaccine was discovered by Edward Jenner.

1796, June 1 - Tennessee became the 16th state. Tennessee Gets Its Start With "Least Imperfect" Founding Document published June 1, 2015 on Tennessee State Library & Archives blog.

1796, September

September 21, 2023 post by the U.S. Government Publishing Office on Facebook:

This week in 1796, George Washington gave his "Farewell Address" which was printed as a Senate Document in the 2nd session of the 106th Congress.

See the Address on GPO’s GovInfo. Washington's Farewell Address to the People of the United States


1798 - Alien and Sedition Actswith lots of links to other pages on Primary Documents in American History on The Library of Congress. Toughening of immigration and naturalization laws pushed through Congress by the Federalists and signed into law by President John Adams. See Learning from the law by Judy G. Russell published January 20, 2017 on her The Legal Genealogist blog blog.

1798, July 11 - the U.S. Marine Corps is re-established by an act of Congress from Reestablishment of the Marine Corps from US Navy.mil.


1799, January 9 - income tax introduced for the first time.

1799, June 6 - American orator Patrick Henry dies. Liberty Ships were named after his most famous quote.

1799, December 13

December 13, 2022 post by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook:

Have you ever complained about road work on Indiana roads? Imagine if you had to do that work yourself! On December 13, 1799, the Northwest Territory General Assembly passed the 1799 Road Law, which required signposts at important intersections, outlined road construction specifications, and dictated that all men between the ages of twenty-one and fifty must work two days per year on public roads.

Highway supervisors, who were appointed by the courts, notified all qualified men in a township three days before work was to begin. On the specified day, residents were to present themselves or a “substitute to the acceptance of the supervisor” at the given location with all required tools. If a man neglected his duty to appear or provide a substitute, he was fined 75 cents.

The image below, showing a road construction crew in Harrison County Indiana in the early 20th century, is courtesy of the Harrison County Public Library.

[Read about the law here: Laws of the Territory of the United States, North-west of the River Ohio By Northwest Territory, 1800 on Google books.]

1799, December 14 - at 10:00 p.m., George Washington died at his Mount Vernon home after five decades of service to his country. His last words reportedly were: "I feel myself going. I thank you for your attentions; but I pray you to take no more trouble about me. Let me go off quietly. I cannot last long." Washington was sixty-seven years old. From The Death of George Washington on Today in History - December 14 at The Library of Congress .

December 13, 2012 post by Accessible Archives on Facebook:

At 10:00 p.m. on December 14, 1799, George Washington died at his Mt. Vernon home after five decades of service to his country. His last words reportedly were: "I feel myself going. I thank you for your attentions; but I pray you to take no more trouble about me. Let me go off quietly. I cannot last long." Washington was sixty-seven years old.

December 14, 2015 post by George Washington Birthplace National Monument on Facebook:

"Washington is no more."

On this date in 1799, George Washington died at his beloved @Mount Vernon. His cause of death has been highly debated over the 216 years since it occurred, but today's best estimate seems to be acute bacterial epiglottitis.

His last wish was to ensure that he would not be interred into the ground before four days had elapsed, probably to ensure that he was well and truly dead before burial. Washington was interred on December 18.

On December 26, 1799, Washington's old friend, Henry "Light-Horse Harry" Lee, gave the most famous eulogy to the memory of his former general, saying that Washington had been "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen."

December 14, 2022 post by Newspapers.comon Facebook:

George Washington passed away in Virginia on December 14, 1799. News traveled more slowly back then, so notice of his death didn't appear in this Pennsylvania newspaper until the 18th.

See this clipping in the Gazette of the United States on our site: Death of George Washington (1799). Clipped from The North American in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 18 Dec 1799, Wednesday, page 3 on Newspapers.com.

December 13, 2023 post by George Washington's Mount Vernon on Facebook:

Around 2 a.m. on December 14th, 1799, George Washington woke up struggling to breathe and barely able to speak.

His three doctors diagnosed him with quinsy, a generic term for a swelling of the throat. Washington was given a mixture of vinegar and sage tea to gargle, “but in attempting to use the gargle he almost suffocated.”

Washington likely died from a case of acute bacterial epiglottitis, which is treatable with modern antibiotics.

Learn more about Washington's death here: The Death of George Washington

(Image Credits)

"The Last Moments of Washington" after James Duthie, 1861. Courtesy of the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association.

December 14, 2023 post by George Washington's Mount Vernon on Facebook:

#OnThisDay in 1799 at Mount Vernon, George Washington passed away of a throat infection. Tobias Lear recorded Washington's final moments in his journal that night: "I am just going," he said. After uttering some instructions, he whispered finally, "Tis well."

Read Tobias Lear's account: Tobias Lear's Account of George Washington's Death

(Image Credits)

Life of George Washington: The Christian, lithograph by Claude Regnier, after Junius Brutus Stearns, circa 1853. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Gibby, 1984 [WB-55/A1], the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association, Mount Vernon, VA.

December 14, 2023 post by Fold3 on Facebook:

George Washington, commander of the Continental Army and the first president of the United States, died December 14, 1799. Explore our free collection of George Washington Correspondence to see letters sent by Washington during his presidency. US, George Washington Correspondence, 1789-1796

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