Also visit our Ku Klux Klan, Slavery, Sundown Towns, and Underground Railroad sections.
Indiana's African American Settlements is a searchable database is at The Genealogy Center at the Allen County Public Library in Fort Wayne, Indiana.
Early Black Settlements and Early Black Settlements by County discusses Allen County Hanna Addition with as many as 30 families in the 1850 census, posted by the Indiana Historical Society. Retro Indy: African American Settlements at IndyStar.com.
November 1, 2022 post by the Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook :
On November 1, 1851, Indiana's second constitution went into effect. One hundred and fifty delegates met for 127 days in the House of Representatives chamber in the State House to draft the document. According to historian David Vanderstel, “The constitution that emanated from those four months of deliberations was not a radical revision of the original document nor did it significantly alter the existing form of state government. Rather, the proposed draft addressed numerous concerns and problems that had emerged during the formative years of the state.”
Changes included a prohibition on incurring state debt, a commitment to public schools, an increase in the number of elected officials, and suffrage rights for foreign-born males. This new constitution also codified racism in Article XIII, which prohibited the immigration of African Americans into the state. Article XIII was repealed in 1866 when the Indiana Supreme Court ruled the provision unconstitutional because it was contrary to the newly passed 13th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
Learn more about the state constitution here: Indiana Constitution of 1851
The image below, showing the 1851 Constitution, is courtesy of Indiana Archives and Records Administration.
This new constitution also codified racism in Article XIII, which prohibited the immigration of African Americans into the state. Article XIII was repealed in 1866 when the Indiana Supreme Court ruled the provision unconstitutional because it was contrary to the newly passed 13th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
Article 13 - Negroes and Mulattoes
Section 1. No negro or mulatto shall come into or settle in the State, after the adoption of this Constitution.
Section 2. All contracts made with any Negro or Mulatto coming into the State, contrary to the provisions of the foregoing section, shall be void; and any person who shall employ such Negro or Mulatto, or otherwise encourage him to remain in the State, shall be fined in any sum not less than ten dollars, nor more than five hundred dollars.
Section 3. All fines which may be collected for a violation of the provisions of this article, or of any law which ay hereafter be passed for the purpose of carrying the same into execution, shall be set apart and appropriated for the colonization of such Negroes and Mulattoes, and their descendants, as may be in the State at the adoption of this Constitution, and may be willing to emigrate.
Section 4. The General Assembly shall pass laws to carry out the provisions of this article.
See Article 13 of the 1851 Indiana Constitution, Indiana Constitution of 1851, Constitution of 1851 as originally written, The 1851 Indiana Constitution by David G Vanderstel, page 10 of the Indiana Constitution by the Indiana Historian A Magazine Exploring Indiana History, and Being Black in Indiana all at IN.gov.
After 1831, black settlers in Indiana were required to register with county authorities and to post a $500 bond as a guarantee of good behavior. From Being Black in Indiana at Indiana Historical Bureau.
- The African American Genealogical Society of Fort Wayne is on Facebook: www.facebook.com/aagsfw/ has a Facebook Video page: www.facebook.com/aagsfw/videos/, and is creating a growing collection of videos www.youtube.com/channel/UCXKpcegWbuTA1NRpKk0oA-A/featured on YouTube.
- The video below was filmed in 2021 while COVID Pandemic restrictions were in force at the Allen County Public Library.
May 19, 2023 post by the Genealogy Center on Facebook:
Have you explored our African American Gateway database?
The African American Gateway is a growing resource for African American research, and includes information from the United States, Canada, and the Caribbean, and well as a few other countries. The links to websites in this gateway are paired with a bibliography of resources for African American research in The Genealogy Center collection.
Check it out here: https://www.genealogycenter.info/africanamerican/
- African-American Births, 1887-1920 at The Genealogy Center at the Allen County Public Library in Fort Wayne, Indiana.
- African-American Marriage Records, 1824-1920 at The Genealogy Center at the Allen County Public Library in Fort Wayne, Indiana.
- African-American Deaths, 1887-1920 at t The Genealogy Center at the Allen County Public Library in Fort Wayne, Indiana.
- Genealogy Gems: News from the Fort Wayne Library No. 126, August 31, 2014
Appreciating the challenges of African American and First Nations/Native American research, The Genealogy Center offers two gateways for those interested in these areas of research. The African American Gateway is organized by states, regions, countries outside the United States, and subjects. Within each area, one will find a significant collection of relevant websites along with a comprehensive list of Genealogy Center resources for the specific state, region, country, or subject in which one is interested. There are nearly 10,000 Internet sites categorized in this gateway. Using this gateway is a good way to quickly access pertinent materials to advance one’s research.
- African-Americans found in Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana, city directories goes back to the first 1858 city directory thru 1910 by Margery Graham at the The Genealogy Center at the Allen County Public Library in Fort Wayne, Indiana
- Marsha Smiley African American Collection Database of local African-American pioneers
hidden stories of those who dared to cross through the gateway firstin the Marsha Smiley Collection: Crossing Opportunity's Threshold at The Genealogy Center at the Allen County Public Library in Fort Wayne, Indiana. Read Hidden History: Curator highlights Allen County’s African-American pioneers in online database with video by Kaitor Kposowa published February 19, 2018 by CBS WANE-TV NewsChannel 15. Sharing black history Resident's project grows to become ACPL collection by Janet Patterson published May 14, 2019 in The Journal Gazette newspaper.
- Pushing the Color Line: Race and Employment in Fort Wayne, Indiana, 1933-1963, PEGGY SEIGEL, Indiana Magazine of History, Vol. 104, No. 3 (SEPTEMBER 2008), pp. 241-276 (36 pages), Published By: Indiana University Press
- Local residents' triumphs taped Project seeks to record black history Lynn Altevogt, October 4, 2014 in The Journal Gazette newspaper
Alfred Brothers was one of the youngest aircraft commanders in the strategic air command while he served in the U.S. Air Force.Now on the Internet Archive Wayback Machine.
The Black Lutheran Alumni Scholarship Team, or BLAST, has awarded two graduating Concordia seniors the Peggy Greer Calloway/Richard J. Ridley Jr. Trailblazer Award Scholarships, named in honor of the school’s first four-year Black graduates.Copied from Black Concordia Lutheran alumni group's scholarships honor trailblazers by Maya Wilkins published July 31, 2022 in The Journal Gazette newspaper. Concordia welcomes back its first African American graduates at Concordia Lutheran High School.
- Honoring city's black founders Pastor seeks designation for near-south-side district by Rosa Salter Rodriguez April 12, 2015 in The Journal Gazette newspaper now on the Internet Archive Wayback Machine.
- Study traces area's black settlements by Rosa Salter Rodriguez April 2015 in The Journal Gazette newspaper now on the Internet Archive Wayback Machine.
- Indiana Negroes and the Spanish American War by Willard B. Gatewood, Jr. 25-page report published in the Indiana Magazine of History journal in the archives at Indiana University Scholarworks online at IU Scholarworks. From a January 20, 2022 post by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook.
- Mary Clark Woman of Color read about the African-American woman in Vincennes who sued in 1821 to end indentured servitude in Indiana published by the Mary Bateman Clark Foundation. See Mary Clark Historical Marker at State Historical Markers by the Indiana Historical Bureau.
As a result of Clark’s contributions, a historical marker now stands in her honor at the Knox County Courthouse in Vincennes, a fitting acknowledgment of a remarkable story that’s even more remarkable to me because, as I discovered several years ago, Mary was my great-great-great-grandmother.Copied from How do you preserve history you don’t know exists? by Eunice Trotter, director of Indiana Landmarks’ Black Heritage Preservation Program, February 6, 2023 in the IndianaCapitalChronicle.
November 17, 2021 post by The African American Genealogical Society of Fort Wayne on Facebook:
Thank you Eunice Trotter for your presentation tonight- ‘Black in Indiana’ at the Genealogy Center.
Being Black in Indiana at the Indiana Historical Bureau.
- Racial justice in 1820s Indiana: Slave trial and Fall Creek Massacre - encore (originally November 2, 2019) posted July 4, 2020 on the Archives of Hoosier History Live podcast on Saturdays, noon to 1 p.m. ET on WICR 88.7 FM introduction starts with:
With various aspects of racial justice in the headlines, Hoosier History Live will explore precedent-setting legal trials in early Indiana involving African Americans and Native Americans. We are drawing upon our rich archive for a special encore show focusing on two landmark cases of racial justice in early 19th century Indiana. The two trials: one in which an enslaved Indiana woman successfully sued for her freedom, and a second in which white men were found guilty and executed for slaughtering nine Native Americans, an infamous incident that history has dubbed the Fall Creek Massacre. The shows focusing on these milestone legal cases both originally aired in 2010. In 1821, Mary Bateman Clark, a young African-American woman living in Vincennes, made history when her lawyer filed a lawsuit seeking her release from an "indentured servitude" contract with one of the most prominent men in the new state of Indiana. The contract required Clark to cook, clean and sew for Gen. Washington Johnston and his family for 20 years. Her only pay was housing, food and clothing. The case, which made its way to the Indiana Supreme Court, involved determining whether such "indentured servitude" contracts violated the state's Constitution as a form of slavery. Nearly 200 years ago - on Nov. 16, 1821 - the state Supreme Court ruled in Clark's favor and ordered her employer to release her.
- A Janaury 17, 2023 post by the Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook stated:
On January 17, 1842, Black citizens met in Indianapolis to discuss the organization of a statewide convention that would promote unity among the Black population regarding the colonization movement. This movement advocated emancipating and returning enslaved people to Africa. Although Indiana state officials, including Indiana Governor James Brown Ray, spoke in favor of the colonization effort, a majority of members of the Black community opposed it. Some considered emigration to Jamaica, Canada, or Oregon, but African colonization received little support. Learn more about the colonization movement in Indiana here:The Colonization Movement.
- February 3, 1852 - the Indiana General Assembly requested information about Liberia from James Mitchell, agent of the recently formed Indiana Colonization Society that began providing funds to help Indiana free blacks emigrate to Liberia on the western coast of Africa.
- An 1853
Registry of Negroes and Mulattoesfor Vigo County is discussed in the video From the Vault | Vigo County Registry by the Indiana Archives and Records Administration published January 25, 2019 on YouTube. This was posted January 25, 2019 on Twitter as:
Founded as a free state, Indiana nevertheless had a Constitutional provision that attempted to exclude free African-Americans from living there. In this episode of From the Vault, we analyze an item that shows this contradiction: the Vigo Co registry.by the Indiana Archives on Twitter.
- 1881 - Article XIII of the 1851 Indiana Constitution was formally removed from the constitution. It prohibited African-Americans from migrating to Indiana, despite the fact that 11,262 blacks were Hoosier citizens as of the 1850 census.
- 1881, April - FRIDAY FACT: Part of the criminal code the Indiana legislature approved in April 1881 said that marriages between a white person and a person deemed to have more than 1/8 negro blood were illegal, and those couples who did marry would be fined up to $1,000 and sent to state prison between 1 and 10 years. Anyone who assisted in these illegal marriages would be fined up to $1,000. Source: Laws of the State of Indiana, passed at the special session of the General Assembly begun on the 8th day of March, A.D. 1881 (Indianapolis: Carlon & Hollenbeck, 1881). Copied from October 11, 2013 post by Indiana Genenealogical Society on Facebook.
- The Negro in Indiana Before 1881 by Earl E. McDonald in 1931 Indiana Magazine of History, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 291-306.
- African American Gateway on the The Genealogy Center at the Allen County Public Library in Fort Wayne, Indiana web site. Lots of good stuff like the Marsha Smiley African American Collection with highlights of individuals from Fort Wayne and Allen County.
- African / African-American Historical Society Museum has a Facebook page.
Fort Wayne's African/African-American Historical Society Museum by The News-Sentinel posted February 4, 2018 on YouTube
members of the Unitarian Universalist Congregation of Fort Wayne toured the African/African-American Historical Society Museum with Executive Director, Dr. John Aden.
- Early African Americans find local life a constant struggle
By 1900, there were 276 African Americans in Fort Wayne. The overall population was 45,115. Part of the reason for the increase was the migration of African Americans moving from the South. ... By 1910, William Warfield had built a solid life for his family.by Shannon Kin.
- African Americans in Fort Wayne: The First 200 Years 2000 book by Dodie Marie Miller.
February 27, 2023 post by Genealogy Center on Facebook:
Today, we are featuring the Hana L. Stith Collection, courtesy of the African/African American Historical Society and Museum in Fort Wayne. This collection includes the Josephine Williams Obituary Collection.
With this collection, you can search by first and last name or browse the collection by surname.
- Civil Rights in Fort Wayne : A Photographic Retrospective at The History Center.
- On May 13, 1869, at a special session called by Governor Conrad Baker, and after much deliberation the Indiana General Assembly approved a law that admitted African American children to public schools.
In a 1912 article for the Indiana Magazine of History, Professor Abram C. Shortridge noted that around 1862 the Indiana State Teachers' Association began to lobby for "colored schools," but lawmakers failed to take on the issue until 1867. Shortridge lamented that until the 1869 special session it looked as if “the black children were doomed to run the streets for another term of two years while their fathers and mothers continued to pay their taxes, by the aid of which the children of the more favored race were kept in school ten months of the year." He noted that shortly after the amendment passed, Indianapolis prepared to accommodate these students and reported, "[S]ome of the buildings already abandoned were repaired and refurnished; others were rented, properly seated and made quite comfortable. By the first of September we were ready for all who might apply."
From this time until the late 1920s, Black children attended segregated elementary schools and integrated high schools. In the late 1920s, many Indiana cities established segregated high schools, such as Crispus Attucks in Indianapolis, Lincoln High School in Evansville, and Theodore Roosevelt High School in Gary. While a 1949 “fair schools” bill attempted to integrate Indiana schools, many remained segregated until the 1970s. Copied from a May 13, 2022 post by the Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook. See their link to THE SCHOOLS OF INDIANAPOLIS—III A. C. SHORTRIDGE The Indiana Quarterly Magazine of History Vol. 8, No. 3 (SEPTEMBER, 1912), pp. 122-131 (10 pages), published by: Indiana University Press available on jstor.org.
The Negro Motorist Green Book, 1949 shows six Fort Wayne businesses listed on page 29. The 2018 movie Green Book about a 1962 field trip won the 2019 Best Picture and three out of five Academy Award nominations on February 24, 2019. See Sundown Towns.
- The African/African-American Historical Society Museum of Fort Wayne Indiana
436 E. Douglas Avenue, the duplex that houses the museum’s collection has its own story to tell. It is the only building still standing in Fort Wayne once listed in the Negro Motorist Green Book, a travel guide for African Americans published between 1936 to 1967 to chronicle businesses safe to visit. Listed as “Mrs. B. Talbot’s Tourist Home,” the large Victorian residence offered shelter for Black travelers who were not welcomed in local, white-owned hotels.Copied from Grant Helps African American History Museum Regain Momentum at Indiana Landmarks.
- The West Acres Motel in Fort Wayne, Allen County was listed in the Green Book from 1957-63 from an October 7, 2023 post by Indiana Department of Natural Resources on Facebook.
200 of the nearly 10,000 businesses advertised in the Green Book were in Indiana and included tourist homes, hotels and motels, resorts, taverns, restaurants, night clubs, liquor stores, gas/service stations, autobody shops, dry cleaners, drug stores, tailors, beauty parlors and barbers. Businesses located in homes, like tourist homes and beauty parlors, were often listed by the owner’s name.Copied from an October 2, 2023 post by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources on Facebook.
- Green Book: Indiana Edition, by Madeline Hellmich DNR-DHPA Intern and Graduate Student at IUPUI’s Department of History Indiana Department of Natural Resources.
- The Green books were discussed January 13, 2019 on You are positively from Fort Wayne, if you remember... Archived group only visible to existing members on Facebook.
- Road Tripping in the Era of the Green Book
Victor Hugo Green, Harlem postal worker turned travel agent, published the Negro Motorist Green Book from 1936-1967 posted March 10, 2017 on Indiana Landmarks. The guide recommended businesses and attractions around the country, including sites in Indiana, that would be friendly to African American travelers.
- Unwelcome Travelers video by Eric Olson, 21Country Featured Reporterdiscusses and shows the five Fort Wayne stops listed in the Green Book, where they were, and which one is still here published January 31, 2019 on 21AliveNews.com.
- The New York Public Library Digital Collections has 23 different years of the Green Book from 1930s to 1967.
- The Green Book and Indiana sites posted December 18, 2021 on the Archives of Hoosier History Live podcast on Saturdays, noon to 1 p.m. ET on WICR 88.7 FM introduction starts with
The Green Book was an annual guidebook for African America motorists during an era of widespread discrimination. Published from the mid-1930s through the mid-1960s, the Green Book listed hotels, restaurants, gasoline stations and other sites that welcomed all travelers. Because sites across Indiana were included in most editions of the book that became known as the "bible of Black traveling", Hoosier History Live will explore them with a popular guide for Indiana history tours. Sampson Levingston of Through2Eyes will be Nelson’s guest to share insights about the impact of The Green Book and about the Indiana sites, many of them long gone.
- How the Green Book Helped African-American Tourists Navigate a Segregated Nation Listing hotels, restaurants and other businesses open to African-Americans, the guide was invaluable for Jim-Crow era travelers Jacinda Townsend April 2016 was posted October 6, 2022 by Smithsonian Magazine stating:
The Green Book was trending today on Twitter and we saw that many were unfamiliar with just how important this guide was to Black travelers during Jim Crow. We wanted to revisit this archival piece to highlight how the book, created by Victor H. Green, a Black postal carrier from Harlem, helped motorists safely navigate during the segregation era.
February 9, 2023 post by Timeline on Facebook:
A Travel Guide for Jim Crow America Traveling while black was dangerous, so black Americans bought this guidebook by the thousands.
- The African/African-American Historical Society Museum of Fort Wayne Indiana
Twenty-two years before Loving v. Virginia, Anna Harley, a white woman, and Daniel Winters, an African American man, sacrificed family, friends, and even country, to live together as husband and wife.Copied from Before It Was Legal: a black-white marriage, 1945-1987 by Nancy Poling posted on January 17, 2018 by the Indiana Historical Bureau.
- Your black history matters! Can you afford to lose your history? by Leah H. Reeder published September 5, 2015 in a Special to Frost Illustrated discusses a number of Fort Wayne firsts: Arthur Williams was the first African American policeman. The second policeman was Oliver Lee, hired in 1919. Laura Jackson was the first black female police officer . Dr. Theodore Roosevelt Borders, a Howard University graduate, was an early African American physician. Dr. Roland B. Wilson was another physician on staff at three different city hospitals. Dr. Alfred Stovall, a Howard Medical School graduate, along with Dr. Jeff Towles, a University of Louisville Medical School Graduate, in 1993 opened a full service medical facility on Lafayette and Pontiac Streets. Other early African American medical practitioners were: Dr. Roland B. Walter, Dr. James Graham, and Nancy Lester R.N. There were several small business owners, such as Dr. Stovall’s mother, Arrie Stovall, a graduate of the Madam C.J. Walker Beauty College of Birmingham, Ala. Carl and Mamie Wilson came to Fort Wayne in 1917 and were owner operators of several small businesses, a pool hall, an exterminating company and Wilson’s Chicken Shack, a small diner. In 1925, Ellis Micheaux Sr. opened the first funeral home in service to the African American community, after his passing in 1952; the business was operated by his wife, Mrs. Josie (Bryant) Micheaux until closing in 2002.
- Remembering slavery : African Americans talk about their personal experiences of slavery and emancipation by Berlin, Ira, 1941-; Favreau, Marc, 1968-; Miller, Steven F Publication date 1998, borrow online at Internet Archive.
- PrimeTime39 - September 28, 2018 Season 2018 Episode 31 | 26m 52s Fort Wayne Colored Giants Baseball. Guests - Al Brothers, Dr. Miles Edwards, and Jerry Markle. This area's only in-depth, live, weekly news, analysis and cultural update forum, PrimeTime 39 airs Fridays at 7:30pm. This program is hosted by PBS39's President/General Manager Bruce Haines. See more local Baseball information.
- The Fort Wayne Colored Giants helped bring the Fort Wayne community together around baseball - Alfred Brothers Jr. of Fort Wayne discussed the Fort Wayne Colored Giants baseball team during a Mather Lecture Series presentation Sunday, February 4, 2018 at The History Center. by Kevin Kilbane published January 31, 2018 in
The News-Sentinel newspaper. He also was the guest writer for The Fort Wayne Colored Giants by Alfred Brothers Jr., PhD posted February 28, 2018 on Indiana Historical Bureau blog. Photos and discussion July 28, 2019 on You are positively from Fort Wayne, if you remember... Archived group only visible to existing members on Facebook
- Copied from the article: The Boston native has learned a lot, such as:
- Rather than playing for about a decade, as he first believed, Brothers discovered the Colored Giants started playing games as early as 1907 and continued until 1949.
- African-American baseball teams existed all over Indiana, not just in a few large cities.
- The Colored Giants traveled and played teams from a wide area. They occasionally played teams from the legendary Negro Leagues, including the Indianapolis ABCs; Homestead Grays from Pittsburgh and Washington, D.C.; and the Chicago American Giants.
- The Colored Giants had friendly rivalries with some of the all-white baseball teams in Fort Wayne, and the teams played each other frequently.
- “We tend to think of the community as segregated,” Brothers said. “This (baseball) was one thing that pulled the community together.”
- Copied from the article: The Boston native has learned a lot, such as:
A February 13, 2023 post by WANE 15 on Facebook:
The Fort Wayne Colored Giants served as the longest Black baseball team to represent the city of Fort Wayne.
The post generated some interesting comments.
- Illuminating a Legacy|African Americans rose above inequality to make contributions to local community
The first African Americans in the Fort Wayne area were probably here before the arrival of Revolutionary War Gen. “Mad Anthony” Wayne, whose fort gave the town its name.By Linda Lipp published February 23, 2007 on KPC News.com.
- INJUSTICE’S LARIAT | LYNCHING IN INDIANA by Justin Clark published June 4, 2018 in
Hoosier State Chronicles Indiana's Digital Historic Newspaper Program blog was a June 4, 2018 Tweeter Tweet. The first paragraph states:
Indiana, a state claimed as “free” from its statehood in 1816, was nevertheless the 7th highest non-southern state with racial terror lynchings, with 18 separate incidents. When searching through Indiana newspapers, many stories emerge of outlaw vigilantes who terrorized and brutalized African-Americans, sometimes for nothing more than alleged crimes. Since many were lynched before they received equal justice under the law, many of their lives ended tragically through injustice under the lariat.The article includes links to videos and more articles.
- OSCAR ROGAN
Several years ago Todd Peterson sent me this box score, from the May 7, 1917, Fort Wayne (Indiana) Daily News, which showed a pitcher named Rogan and outfielders named Carr and Hawkins playing for the Fort Wayne Colored Giants.Published May 10, 2013 on Agate Type Reconstructing Negro League & Latin American Baseball.
- Firefighter at the forefront 2nd black man on force reflects on career, life by Terri Richardsons published September 16, 2018 in The Journal Gazette newspaper. In 1963, Marvin Eady applied with the urging of a Fort Wayne city councilman who was working to make the fire department more diverse.
- Indiana's Hidden History
- Indiana's Hidden History 20-minute video of local African American histories by Terra Brantley, posted: February 26, 2019 on CBS WANE-TV NewsChannel 15. Stories on Al Brother, Terra Brantley's DNA test results, the Alexander T. Rankin underground railroad house, Johnny Bright best college football player in the country,
- Indiana's Hidden History
- How we got here Voices of Fort Wayne's black experience across the centuries by Connie Haas Zuber published June 21, 2020 in The Journal Gazette newspaper in reponse to the killing of George Floyd in the custody of the Minneapolis police. She discusses early Fort Wayne history with Alexander T. Rankin the abolistionist preacher who arrived in the fall of 1837 after recovering from a beating by a mob in Dayton, Ohio after his February abolition preaching. She covers the great migration of Blacks from the south to manufacturing jobs in Fort Wayne to the Rolling Mills area and more.
- Migration of African Americans during 20th century to Northern states posted February 27, 2021 on the Archives of Hoosier History Live podcast on Saturdays, noon to 1 p.m. ET on WICR 88.7 FM introduction starts with:
As Hoosier History Live salutes Black History Month, our focus will be on a massive movement of an estimated 6 million people during a span of nearly 60 years. Beginning during the World War I era, African Americans migrated in unprecedented numbers from the South to cities in Northern states, including Indiana. According to an article published in Smithsonian magazine, the waves of 20th century migration began with a move of Black families during the winter of 1916 from Selma, Alabama, to the North, a little-noticed start to powerful demographic shift that also encompassed a transition from agriculture to factory work. By the time it ended in the early 1970s, "a rural people had become urban." Some historians use the term Great Migration to apply to the entire span. Others refer to the era from the 1910s to 1940 as the First Great Migration, and describe the 1940s to 1970 movement as the Second Great Migration.
- Getting to know the ‘ignored legacy’ of Black leaders in Fort Wayne history Kara Hackett, March 24, 2021 on Input Fort Wayne.
- Edwin Gibson: A Distinguished Career Begins
- Teacher’s book explores 1963 MLK visit to Fort Wayne about Christopher Elliott a teacher of world and U.S. history at Bishop Luers High School in Fort Wayne's book Before the Dream: Martin Luther King’s 1963 Speech, and Civil Rights Struggles in Fort Wayne, Indiana by Kevin Kilbane posted July 12, 2021 in Today's Catholic.
- African-American students during the late 1800s in Indiana posted July 24, 2021 on the Archives of Hoosier History Live podcast on Saturdays, noon to 1 p.m. ET on WICR 88.7 FM introduction states: During the 1860s and '70s, "colored schools" (the term used during that era) began to open in Indiana. State laws required Black students to be educated in schools separate from their white counterparts.In 1886, the ceremony for the first graduate of Vincennes Colored High School in southwestern Indiana sparked a national controversy when whites boycotted the event, according to an article in the spring issue of Traces of Indiana and Midwestern History, the magazine published by the Indiana Historical Society. The article's author is acclaimed journalist, historian and researcher Eunice Trotter, who will be Nelson's guest to share insights about the ways Indiana cities handled the education of African American youth during the late 19th century.
- We have a section on Slavery in Indiana.
- African American Immigrants Persevere Despite Discrimination and Segregation in Fort Wayne by Joshua Schipper October 4, 2022 on Fort Wayne Media Collaborative.
- African American Burial Grounds Preservation Program Created in Omnibus Bill December 21, 2022 by Coalition for American Heritage.
The Black Cemetery Network - was discussed in the monthly E-Zine Genealogy Gems: News from the Allen County Public Library at Fort Wayne, No. 221, July 31, 2022 from the The Genealogy Center at the Allen County Public Library in Fort Wayne, Indiana.
Black Cemetery Network
by Melissa Tennant
For many researchers, it is difficult to learn that our ancestors are buried in cemeteries that are not maintained, have become overgrown, possibly destroyed, or worse. For African Americans, this search for burial grounds can become even more complex. Historically segregated by race and with the expansion and growth caused by urban development, many Black cemeteries have become lost to history. Unfortunately, the number of African American cemeteries that have disappeared is unknown.
The Black Cemetery Network <https://blackcemeterynetwork.org> is a project created by the University of South Florida to bring the stories of these neglected African American cemeteries and those buried within from obscurity by collaborating with other individuals and organizations, researching the cemeteries or locations, and advocating to preserve historical Black burial sites. The Black Cemetery Network is a national network where individuals and groups working to preserve the history of a lost African American cemetery can contribute to the network.
As of the end of July 2022, there are sixty African American burial grounds registered across nineteen states, including Arkansas, North Carolina, and Michigan. To search for a cemetery, select the “Explore” tab at the top of the site and choose “The Archive” from the drop-down menu. One can search by a specific state, county, or town to learn the history of these lost graves and the work being done to preserve the stories of those buried at these locations.
When the project began, one of the initial locations researched was Zion Cemetery, the first African American cemetery established in Tampa, Florida, in 1901. Images show the apartments, warehouses, and other structures that were built over the cemetery. Using ground penetrating radar, more than 300 graves were located, and by researching death records, the group discovered 382 individuals were buried in Zion Cemetery between 1913 and 1920.
Other entries include the Nantucket Historic Coloured Cemetery in Nantucket, Massachusetts, which has burials starting potentially in 1805. Information provided includes maps of the cemetery sections along with names and dates for those buried. The Quarter Place Cemetery in Brookneal, Virginia, was once a plantation cemetery, where 147 burials have been discovered, some dating back to 1794. And finally, the Woodland Cemetery in Clemson, South Carolina, is where 667 unmarked graves were located using ground penetrating radar.
The details and information provided in each entry differ dramatically yet they each tell a story; a story of a lost cemetery, a community, the deceased individuals, and those hoping to preserve or document these cemeteries. The Black Cemetery Network <https://blackcemeterynetwork.org> is a great place to connect with and learn about African American cemeteries once lost and gratefully rediscovered.
A January 31, 2023 post by The History Center on Facebook:
In 1920, to help the newly arrived Black residents from the southern states cope with the problems of their new environment, a small group of Black citizens created the Fort Wayne Community Association. Shortly after its founding the group acquired a building at 502 East Wallace, but due to prejudice it was quickly moved to 421 East Douglas. With the move the organization also changed its name to the Phyllis Wheatley Center. The Wheatley Center offered programs for adults and children, including life skills, recreation clubs, Boy Scouts, and Girl Scouts. In 1930, the Wheatley Center became officially connected the Urban League. The latter focused on social and economic issues, while the former continued to focus on recreation. For over a decade, the two organizations continued to work together while focusing on their respective programs. In 1946, new Wheatley Center director, Robert Wilkerson, realized that if the center was to survive, they needed to address the needs of their community. On October 1, 1949, the Wheatley Center was restructured and the name was changed to the Fort Wayne Urban League. From its beginnings to today the Fort Wayne Urban League has been serving the community for over 100 years. #sociallyhistory
Do not miss our next lecture of the 2022-2023 George R. Mather Sunday Lecture Series, given by Aisha A. Arrington. In “The Persistent Movement Of The Urban League,” she will talk about how the Fort Wayne Urban League has been serving the community for over 100 years; making it one of the longest standing not-for-profit organizations in the area. Their mission is to “advance social equity and economic self-reliance for African Americans and others in underserved communities.” The Urban League is honored to share a part of that history and provide a vision moving forward to address the disparities that remain persistent for African American people (and other minorities) in areas of wealth, income, health, and social justice. It’s important to understand why the Urban League was assembled 100+ years ago and why the mission remains relevant today.
We will be offering in-person and virtual options. To attend the lecture virtually please contact the History Center in advance at firstname.lastname@example.org
The History Center Sunday, February 5th 2 PM, Free Admission
February 13, 2023 post by Genealogy Center
Today, we are featuring the Fort Wayne Black pages & professional directory! To view this digital collection, click here: http://contentdm.acpl.lib.in.us/digital/collection/FWBP The Fort Wayne Black pages & professional directory was a privately-owned publication published by Walter T. Hayden. It was published annually and was not associated with any local or regional telephone company. It was not supported by any governmental grants or assistance. Publishing was made possible through the sale of advertising space in the publication to Black-owned businesses and major corporations supporting Black business development. These editions were generously provided by Fort Wayne resident, Linda Jones of the publisher’s family.
February 17, 2023 post by The History Center on Facebook:
Back in the late 1960s, the idea of getting both black and white citizens of the area together for a social event was deemed a rather radical. The Black and White Ball was the idea of Evelyn Williams, who founded The Civics, Inc. in 1968. Membership in The Civics, Inc. was interracial “in keeping with the purpose of the Ball. Membership is limited to 50% Black, 50% White and no more than 15 members. At the beginning of each Ball year, members will donate seed money, if enough money is not available from the year before. This amount will be a minimum of $5.00 and a maximum of $25.00. The members of Civics, Inc. were racially diverse and from different fields of work. They realized that this diversity could be an asset in bringing about positive changes in Fort Wayne. The first two balls were held at the former Van Orman Hotel. Attendance in 1968 was 150—this doubled to 300 in 1969 and doubled again in 1970 to 600. The 1970 ball was held at The Lantern. By 1975, 800 guests attended the ball. Income obviously increased, with disbursements totaling $21,645.91 between 1968-1985. The group sponsored the Black and White Ball until 1977. In 1978 the ball was cancelled due to snow. Attendance at the 1977 ball was approximately 900 and had outgrown Southtown Mall, one of the locations for the event. But in 1985, when the Grand Wayne Center opened, the Civics brought the event back because there was now space again that was large enough to accommodate the crowd. The twelfth and final ball was held in 1987. #sociallyhistory
February 28, 2023 post by Megan Shinn on Facebook:
How Indiana's Historical Marker Program Highlights Black History #blackhistorymonth2023 #Indianapolis WRTV Indiana Historical Bureau
- Today in History - March 3 at The Library of Congress. The Weeping Time On March 3, 1859, journalist Q. K. Philander Doesticks (Mortimer Thomson) attended an auction of 436 men, women, and children formerly held by Pierce M. Butler. Butler’s slaves were auctioned in order to pay debts incurred in gambling and the financial crash of 1857-58. Doesticks’ account, What Became of the Slaves on a Georgia Plantation?, includes vivid descriptions of the largest recorded slave auction in U.S. history. The grim sale, which took place over two rainy days on the eve of the Civil War, was referred to as “The Weeping Time.” Image 3 of Daniel Murray Pamphlet Collection copy Daniel Murray Pamphlet Collection copy - twenty page document: What became of the slaves on a Georgia plantation? : Great auction sale of slaves, at Savannah, Georgia, March 2d & 3d, 1859. A sequel to Mrs. Kemble's journal at The Library of Congress.
August 2, 2023 post by 10 Million Names on Facebook:
American Ancestors is excited to announce 10 Million Names, a new project that will recover the names and restore information to families of the estimated 10 million men, women, and children of African descent who were enslaved in America between the 1500s and 1865.
The end result of 10 Million Names will be a centralized repository of genealogical and historical information about enslaved people of African descent and their families on a free website. This will take years to accomplish, but we’re already underway.
To do the work, 10 Million Names is engaging a collaborative network of expert genealogists, cultural organizations, and community-based family historians. Together we will amplify the voices of people who have been telling their family stories for centuries, connect researchers and data partners with people seeking answers to family history questions, and expand access to data, resources, and information about enslaved African Americans.
Discover more about 10 Million Names at https://10millionnames.org/
August 2, 2023 post by 10 Million Names on Facebook:
10 Million Names is a new project by American Ancestors to recover the names of the 10 million people of African descent who were enslaved before 1865 in the U.S.